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Orientalism

Orientalism is the sociological, historical, cultural, and anthropological study of the Orient, with “the Orient” constituting countries East of “the Occident” (Western Europe), and including…

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Modernism in East Asia

The term ‘modernism’ is commonly used to describe some of the literary and cultural production of the early twentieth century in China, Japan, and Korea,…

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Dance

Historically, modern dance scholarship has followed the contours of the field as defined by John Martin, the revered dance critic for The New York Times,…

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Intellectual Currents Subject Overview

This section focusses on the historical, sociological, philosophical, economic, political, and scientific context of modernism. Entries cover individuals, coteries, movements, and events. The primary criterion…

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Modernism in South Asia

In South Asia, a certain haziness regarding modernism and modernity derives not only from the manner in which they can be elided with each other,…

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Constructivism

Prior to World War II, Constructivism attracted little interest from British artists apart from the few involved with Circle in 1937. Circle consisted of a…

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Modernism in the Middle East and Arab World

Exploring modernity and its intellectual trends in the Middle East is a very fitting endeavour, as ‘Middle East’ itself is a ‘modern’ term which has…

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Photography

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Bauhaus

In 1919 a young architect named Walter Gropius initiated one of the most modern art schools of the twentieth century in the city of Weimar…

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Modernism in Canada and The United States

In Canada and the United States modernism emerges from transnational engagements with global intellectual movements while also grappling with local intellectual, cultural, and political developments…

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Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism was a movement initiated by a group of loosely affiliated artists that came together during the early 1940s, primarily in New York City.…

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Cubism

Cubism is an influential modernist art movement that emerged in Paris during the first decade of the twentieth century. The term was established by Parisian…

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Social Realism

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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…

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Modernism in Africa

Though they often escape critical scrutiny, concepts such as modernism, modernity, and modernization are at the heart of the concept of development, and thus omnipresent…

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Futurism

Futurism emerged at the beginning of the twentieth century as a movement that explicitly conceptualized the process of literary and artistic experimentation as part of…

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Surrealism Overview

Soupault’s publication of Manifeste du Surréalism in 1924. Rising in the wake of the First World War, Surrealism revolted against a world that had become…

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Dongyanghwa

Dongyanghwa (東洋畵, Jap. toyoei), or “Oriental painting”, are brush paintings made with ink or color on either paper or silk. In the Joseon Dynasty, such…

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Modernism and Latin American Classical Music

The idea of musical modernism in the Latin American classical music world was a particular aesthetically-oriented instance of a broader discourse that has been described…

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Renan, Ernest (1823–1892)

Joseph Ernest Renan was a French rationalist philosopher, orientalist, and historian of religion. He was a professor of Semitics at the Collège de France. Renan…

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Muktibodh, Gajanan Madhav (1917–1964)

Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh was a prominent poet for both modernism and left-oriented progressive Hindi literature. His development of the imaginary, his generic innovation of the…

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St. Denis, Ruth (1878–1968)

Ruth St. Denis is considered one of the founders of modern dance, even though the genre had not been named as such during her most…

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Modern Belly Dance

References to dances of the East have appeared in Western sources at least since the beginning of the Christian era, yet what has become known…

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Buddha Bandit Poets

In 1978, Asian American poets Garrett Hongo, Lawson Fusao Inada, and Alan Chong Lau published The Buddha Bandits Down Highway 99, a collaborative anthology of…

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Shankar, Uday (1900–1977)

A legendary dancer often credited as the father of Indian modern dance, Uday Shankar was a visual artist and an astute choreographer with a keen…