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Bauhaus

In 1919 a young architect named Walter Gropius initiated one of the most modern art schools of the twentieth century in the city of Weimar…

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Visual Arts Subject Overview

Modernism in the visual arts is a complex term and currently the subject of much academic debate. However, this project demanded that we set boundaries…

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Literature Subject Overview

Literary modernism is a truly global and plural phenomenon, playing out in multiple cultural paradigms, in various timeframes, and in response to diverse experiences of…

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Scott, Michael (1905–1989)

Michael Scott was the foremost proponent of modern architecture in Ireland during the mid-20th century. He specialized in public commissions, particularly hospitals and transport hubs,…

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Meyer, Hannes (1889–1954)

Hannes Meyer was a Swiss modernist architect, educator, and the second director of the Bauhaus from 1928 to 1930. He believed that architecture and planning…

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Albers, Josef (1888–1976)

A student, and later instructor, at the Bauhaus, Josef Albers introduced aspects of the German design school’s curriculum to the United States upon his emigration…

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Archipenko, Alexander (1887–1964)

Alexander Archipenko studied painting and sculpture at the Kiev Art school from 1902 until 1905, when he was expelled for criticizing its conservatism. Outside formal…

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Brandt, Marianne (1893–1983)

Best remembered for her metal designs, Marianne Brandt created the small tea extract pot that set a record in 2007 for the highest sum ever…

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Klee, Paul (1879-1940)

Paul Klee was one of the most important and inventive figures in the development of Modernism in the visual arts. The Swiss-German artist's unusual oeuvre…

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Reich, Lilly (1885–1947)

Lilly Reich was a German-born designer who created interiors, displays, and exhibitions in the early to mid-20th century. She was active in the Deutscher Werkbund…

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Klaxon (São Paulo, 1922–1923)

Klaxon (São Paulo, 1922–1923) was the first and most important of Brazil’s avant-garde artistic journals. It comprised a total of nine issues, published on a…

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Games, Abram (1914–1996)

Abram Games belonged to the golden age of British graphic design and as a freelance commercial artist he produced posters for clients including Shell, London…

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (1918/1919–1933) is a term used to describe the German Reich (Deutsches Reich) after the end of World War I and after the…

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Nazi Modernism

Nazi Modernism is not a contradiction in terms, even if Nazi-era rhetoric and propaganda directed against Entartete Kunst powerfully suggested that this was the case.…

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Saarinen, Gottlieb Eliel (1873–1950)

Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen, better known as Eliel Saarinen, was an architect who practiced in his native Finland for twenty-five years before beginning a new phase…

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van Doesburg, Theo (1883–1931)

Theo van Doesburg was a Dutch painter, designer, and art theorist. As the founder and major polemicist of the avant-garde movement known as De Stijl…

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Fischer, József (1901–1995)

József Fischer was a prolific designer of mid-war Hungarian modernist architecture, and in tandem with Farkas Molnár he was also a highly active and important…

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Palucca, Gret (1902–1993)

Gret Palucca took a distinctive improvisational and pedagogical approach to German modern dance in a career spanning four different political systems in Germany. After studying…