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The Grass Society [草草社]

The Grass Society, or Caocaoshe, was a formal group of ink painters founded in Shanghai in 1979. Qiu Deshu [仇德樹] (1948--) founded the group and…

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The 1914 Generation Artists

The artists historiographically grouped as the 1914 Generation transformed the Westernizing artistic impulse of the late Ottoman era into the modernizing impulse of the Republic…

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The Birth of a Nation

One of the most watched and debated American films in history, The Birth of a Nation is a 1915 silent film by D. W. Griffith…

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The Group of Ten (Onlar)

The Group of Ten (Onlar) was formed by ten students under the tutelage of prominent artist, critic, and poet Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu while at the…

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Tamayo, Rufino (1899–1991)

A Mexican painter and muralist of indigenous heritage, Rufino Tamayo was one of the most important representatives of figurative abstraction and poetic realism in 20th-century…

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Tavener, John Kenneth (1944–2013)

John Tavener was an English composer. He studied at the Royal Academy of Music in London, where his composition teachers were Lennox Berkeley and David…

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Tenney, James (1934–2006)

American composer James Tenney produced a wide range of innovative works, including computer music, Fluxus-inspired text scores, and chance-based instrumental pieces founded on the overtone…

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The Lingnan School

The Lingnan School was a school of modern Chinese painting, originating in and around the southern city of Guangzhou (known in the West as Canton)…

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The Waste Land (1922)

The Waste Land is an influential and experimental 435-line poem written by Thomas Stearns Eliot and first published in 1922. Structurally, it is a pastiche…

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The Abbey Theatre

The Abbey Theatre is a term that has come to encapsulate the many iterations of the National Theatre of Ireland. Located in Dublin, the Abbey…

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To Ngoc Van (1906–1954)

To Ngoc Van was a notable Vietnamese painter, and one of the first generation of students to graduate from the École des Beaux Arts de…

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Tippett, Sir Michael (1905–1998)

Michael Tippett was one of the leading British composers of the twentieth century. His music and his writings are characterized by an enduring commitment to…

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The Bay Area Figurative Movement

The Bay Area Figurative Movement, also commonly referred to as the Bay Area Figurative School, was an art movement in the 1950s and 1960s. It…

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Tibetan Modernism

The emergence of Tibetan modernism strongly reflects the social and political changes that the “roof of the world” underwent throughout the 20th century. Central to…

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The Vienna Circle

In 1922 Moritz Schlick (1882–1936) transformed the Verein Ernst Mach (Ernst Mach Society), a weekly reading group concerned with logical positivism, into an international assembly…

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The Provincetown Players (1915–1922)

Founded in Provincetown, Massachusetts in 1915 and transplanted to Greenwich Village in 1916, the Provincetown Players was one of the most influential theatrical organizations in…

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Theory of Relativity, The

The Theory of Relativity is the name given to two separate theories put forth by Albert Einstein (1879–1955): ‘Special Relativity’ and ‘General Relativity’. When first…

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Tarde, Gabriel (1843–1904)

Gabriel Tarde was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and criminologist. In The Laws of Imitation (1880), he suggests that imitation drives the development of language…

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Tati, Jacques (1907–1982)

Jacques Tati (born Jacques Tatischeff) was a French director and actor. Despite a very small output—only six feature films and three shorts—he is considered one…

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The Introspectivists

The Introspectivists (Inzikhistn), the first group of modernist Yiddish poets in America, were part of the Jewish American Renaissance and flourished in the years following…

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The Bicycle Thief (1948)

Ladri di biciclette (The Bicycle Thief, 1948) is a neorealist film by Vittorio De Sica, considered modern and revolutionary because it radically broke with pre-World…

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The Pioneer Players (1911–25)

Led by director Edith Craig, with her mother Ellen Terry as president, the Pioneer Players theater society was founded on May 11, 1911 in London…

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Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de (1864–1901)

Few names are as synonymous with the freethinking associated with the French avant-garde as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Born into an aristocratic family, Toulouse-Lautrec chose to…

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Taller de Arte Mural (1945–1946)

The Taller de Arte Mural (Mural Art Workshop) was founded in 1945 by a group of leading Argentine-based artists with a common vision of promoting…