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Overview

Intellectual Currents

This section focusses on the historical, sociological, philosophical, economic, political, and scientific context of modernism. Entries cover individuals, coteries, movements, and events. The primary criterion…

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Mukařovský, Jan (1891–1975)

Czech linguist and literary theorist Jan Mukařovský was a leading member of the Prague Linguistic Circle and a prominent contributor to the project of structuralist…

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Schmitt, Carl (1888–1985)

A conservative German jurist, political theorist, and Roman Catholic, Schmitt became the most significant legal mind of Weimar and then Nazi Germany. His first major…

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League of Nations (1919–1946)

The League of Nations (1919–1946) was an intergovernmental organisation formed after World War I to mediate disputes among its member nations through diplomacy and collective…

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Sombart, Werner (1863–1941)

Werner Sombart, German economist and sociologist, was born into an upper-class family in Ermsleben. After studying economics and law, Sombart received his doctoral degree from…

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Propaganda

Propaganda is the term for a variety of communication phenomena developed in the 20th century. As such, its meaning has changed over time from a…

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Troeltsch, Ernst (1865–1923)

Ernst Troeltsch was a liberal German Protestant theologian and philosopher of religion whose work spans the last decades of the German Empire and the early…

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Dieste, Eladio (1917–2000)

The Uruguayan engineer Eladio Dieste was trained at the School of Engineering of the University of the Republic at Montevideo, where he taught mathematics and…

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Mannheim, Karl (1893–1947)

Karl Mannheim was one of the most influential sociologists of the early 20th century. He received a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Budapest,…

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Sapir, Edward (1884–1939)

Linguist and anthropologist Edward Sapir is one of those thinkers whose fame has been increased but his full achievement somewhat underrated through association with just…

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Al-Tahtawi, Rifa’a (1801–1873)

Rifa’a Rafi’ al-Tahtawi was an Egyptian reformer and thinker who is widely recognised as the pioneer of the Egyptian ‘Awakening’ (nahda) in the 19th century.…

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Parnell, Charles Stewart (1846–1891)

Charles Stewart Parnell was the first president of the Irish Land League (1879) and the leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party (1879–1891). Born to a…

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Rozanov, Vasily (1856–1919)

Leading writer, publicist, literary critic, and philosopher in late 19th- and early 20th-century Russia, Rozanov was born in Vetluga, Russia, in 1856, and remained in…

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Kartodikromo, Mas Marco (1890–1932)

Mas Marco Kartodikromo (Cepu, Java, 1890 – Boven Digul, Indonesia, 1932) was a prominent writer and activist in the early days of the nationalist movement…

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Reed, John (1887–1920)

Born in Portland, Oregon in 1887, John Reed was a radical American journalist known for his depictions of early twentieth-century labour politics and political revolutions.…

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Mariategui, José Carlos (1894–1930)

José Carlos Mariátegui was the most influential Latin American Marxist of the twentieth century. From 1914 to 1920 he worked as a journalist in Lima,…

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Panofsky, Erwin (1892–1968)

Erwin Panofsky was a German-American art historian who from 1926 to 1933 worked alongside Ernst Cassirer (1874–1945) at the University of Hamburg and at the…

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Koyré, Alexandre (1882–1964)

Born Alexandr Vladimirovich Koyranskiy (Александр Владимирович Койранский) in Taganrog, Russia, Alexandre Koyré moved to Paris, France, as a student where he was active, with varying…

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Read, (Sir) Herbert Edward (1893–1968)

Herbert Edward Read was one of the most influential theorists and promoters of modern art in Britain, with a career spanning over 50 years. He…

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McTaggart, John McTaggart Ellis (1866–1925)

Cambridge philosopher, metaphysician, and mystic John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart was a key figure in initiating modernist shifts in philosophy by challenging traditional understandings of Christian…

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Maritain, Jacques (1882–1973)

Jacques Maritain was a leader among those who attempted to update and transform Catholic teaching for the modern world. Born to a Protestant republican, he…

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Ortega y Gasset, José (1883–1955)

Spanish philosopher, historian, sociologist and politician José Ortega y Gasset contributed significantly to the intellectual landscape of the first half of the twentieth century. Ortega’s…

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Brentano, Franz (1838–1917)

Born in Marienberg, Germany, and active as a philosophy professor and Privatdozent (unsalaried teacher) at universities in Würzburg (1872–73) and Vienna (1874–1895), Franz Clemens Brentano…

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Ginsberg, Asher Zvi Hirsh (1856–1927)

Ahad Ha’am was born Asher Zvi Hirsh Ginsberg in 1856 in Skvira, Ukraine, to an affluent family that was religiously affiliated with the Hasidic movement,…