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Overview

Literature Subject Overview

Literary modernism is a truly global and plural phenomenon, playing out in multiple cultural paradigms, in various timeframes, and in response to diverse experiences of…

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La Création du Monde

A ballet inspired by a creation fable in Blaise Cendrars’s Anthologie nègre (1921), La Création du monde (The Creation of the World) was produced by…

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Larsen, Nella (1891–1964)

Nella Larsen was an American novelist active in the 1920s and one of the central figures of ‘Manhattan modernism.’ She is best known for two…

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Lovecraft, H. P. (1890–1937)

H. P. Lovecraft was an American pulp author in the 1920s and 1930s. His work, primarily published in the magazine Weird Tales, helped create the…

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Lachenmann, Helmut (Friedrich) (1935--)

One of the most influential composers to emerge from Germany following the post-war avant-garde movement, Helmut Lachenmann has remained committed to the legacy of integral…

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Loy, Mina (1882–1966)

Mina Loy, born Mina Gertrude Lowry, (1882–1966), was a British artist, designer, model, novelist, nurse, playwright and poet, with ties to the Dadaist, Futurist and…

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Lutyens, Elisabeth (1906–1983)

(Agnes) Elisabeth Lutyens, CBE, was an English composer, credited with helping to establish the twelve-tone method of serialism in Britain. Lutyens’s first major composition using…

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Lukács, György (1885–1971)

György Lukács was a Hungarian philosopher and literary critic. Born into a wealthy Jewish family, he spent his youth in Berlin and Vienna studying German…

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Leitmotif

A leitmotif (from the German Leitmotiv: ‘guiding motif’) in its original sense is a musical theme that appears multiple times over the course of a…

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Lautner, John Edward (1911–1994)

While the American architect John Lautner may not have considered himself a modernist, he nevertheless made a significant contribution to the branch of modernist architecture…

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Lin, Yutang (林语堂) (1895–1976)

Lin Yutang (林语堂) was a major figure in the development of twentieth-century Chinese modernity. He was a scholar, inventor, educator and translator, as well as…

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Late Modernism

Late Modernism is a critics’ term rather than one that artists used themselves. Introducing it in the late 1970s, architectural critic Charles Jencks was probably…

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Lindsay, Vachel (1879–1931)

Vachel Lindsay was an American poet whose concern for developing a new, popular American language led him to become one of the first people to…

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Lynching Drama

Lynching dramas reflect the brutal history of racial violence in which black individuals, primarily black men, were murdered by a white mob with no repercussions…

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Le Film d’Art

Film d’Art was a French production company founded in February 1908 by businessman Paul Lafitte and backed by Pathé. The company united playwright Henri Lavedan…

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Lim, Hak Tai (1893–1963)

Lim Hak Tai, a Chinese émigré artist based in Singapore, was the founding principal and dean of the Nanyang Academy of Fine Arts (NAFA). Established…

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Lankesh, P. (1935–2000)

P. Lankesh was a prominent Kannada novelist, short story writer, playwright, and essayist. A strong voice in the Kannada public sphere from the 1970s to…

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Liu, Na’o (1905–1940)

On 3 September 1940 Liu Na’ou (1905–40), the Taiwan-born, Japan-educated leader of the Shanghai Neo-Sensation School, was killed by an unknown gunman. He had just…

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Livingstone, Douglas James (1932–1996)

Douglas Livingstone is regularly cited as South Africa’s pre-eminent poet of the twentieth century. Born in Malaysia, but settling in South Africa at the age…

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League of Nations (1919–1946)

The League of Nations (1919–1946) was an intergovernmental organisation formed after World War I to mediate disputes among its member nations through diplomacy and collective…

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Luhan, Mabel Dodge (1879–1962)

Mabel Evans Dodge Sterne Luhan was a writer and patron of the arts who hosted circles of visual and literary artists at her homes in…

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Lye, Len (1901–1980)

New Zealand native Len Lye was an experimental innovator in painting, sculpture, documentary film, and animation. After studying indigenous art in Samoa, he emigrated to…

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Lange, Dorothea (1895–1965)

Dorothea Lange is best known as a documentary photographer for the United States Department of Agriculture’s Resettlement Administration (later the Farm Security Administration) during the…

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Lindsay, Norman Alfred Williams (1879–1969)

Norman Lindsay was one of Australia’s most prominent (and most notorious) artists in the early twentieth century. Throughout his extensive career he worked in a…