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Literature Subject Overview

Literary modernism is a truly global and plural phenomenon, playing out in multiple cultural paradigms, in various timeframes, and in response to diverse experiences of…

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La Règle du jeu [The Rules of the Game]

La Règle du jeu [The Rules of the Game] is a 1939 humanist film by Jean Renoir satirizing the French aristocracy. Premiered at the brink…

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Lilanga, George (1934–2005)

George Lilanga was a contemporary Tanzanian artist best known for his colorful paintings and sculptures of mashetani, or devils in Kiswahili, and transforming a Makonde…

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Lim, Cheng Hoe (1912–1979)

Born in China, Lim Cheng Hoe moved to Singapore with his parents in 1919. Acknowledged as a notable early Singaporean artist, he showed artistic talent…

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Lemos, Fernando (1926--)

Known for his early photographic artwork, Fernando Lemos was associated with the Portuguese surrealists of the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to relocating to…

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Le Corbusier (1887–1965)

Le Corbusier was a Swiss architect and urbanist who acquired French nationality in 1930, having set up his studio (“the atelier for patient research”) in…

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Lissitzky, El (1890–1941)

The Soviet artist, photographer, designer, and architect Lazar Markovich (Mordukhaevich) Lissitzky grew up in a Jewish family in Smolensk in western Russia. In 1909 Lissitzky…

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Leeder, Sigurd (1902–1981)

In a career that spanned over sixty years, Sigurd Leeder made important contributions to the dance worlds in Germany, Great Britain, Chile, and Switzerland. His…

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Lie, Jonas (1833–1908)

Jonas Lie was a leading Norwegian novelist during the Scandinavian Modern Breakthrough, a period of literary realism and naturalism spanning 1870 to 1890. His major…

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Lau, Alan Chong (1948--)

Alan Chong Lau is an American poet and visual artist. Lau began his poetic career in the wake of the 1970s Asian-American movement, a surge…

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Liu Feng-Shueh (1925--)

Dr. Liu Feng-Shueh is a modern dance pioneer in Taiwan. She was the first person to conduct systematic experimentation with the formal elements and creative…

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Liu Kang (1911–2004)

Liu Kang is recognized as one of the founders of Singaporean modern art. However, he was born and educated in China, and moved to Singapore…

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Leitmotif

A leitmotif (from the German Leitmotiv: ‘guiding motif’) in its original sense is a musical theme that appears multiple times over the course of a…

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Lautner, John Edward (1911–1994)

While the American architect John Lautner may not have considered himself a modernist, he nevertheless made a significant contribution to the branch of modernist architecture…

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Lin, Yutang (林语堂) (1895–1976)

Lin Yutang (林语堂) was a major figure in the development of twentieth-century Chinese modernity. He was a scholar, inventor, educator and translator, as well as…

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Late Modernism

Late Modernism is a critics’ term rather than one that artists used themselves. Introducing it in the late 1970s, architectural critic Charles Jencks was probably…

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Lindsay, Vachel (1879–1931)

Vachel Lindsay was an American poet whose concern for developing a new, popular American language led him to become one of the first people to…

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Lynching Drama

Lynching dramas reflect the brutal history of racial violence in which black individuals, primarily black men, were murdered by a white mob with no repercussions…

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Le Film d’Art

Film d’Art was a French production company founded in February 1908 by businessman Paul Lafitte and backed by Pathé. The company united playwright Henri Lavedan…

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Lim, Hak Tai (1893–1963)

Lim Hak Tai, a Chinese émigré artist based in Singapore, was the founding principal and dean of the Nanyang Academy of Fine Arts (NAFA). Established…

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Lankesh, P. (1935–2000)

P. Lankesh was a prominent Kannada novelist, short story writer, playwright, and essayist. A strong voice in the Kannada public sphere from the 1970s to…

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Liu, Na’o (1905–1940)

On 3 September 1940 Liu Na’ou (1905–40), the Taiwan-born, Japan-educated leader of the Shanghai Neo-Sensation School, was killed by an unknown gunman. He had just…

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Livingstone, Douglas James (1932–1996)

Douglas Livingstone is regularly cited as South Africa’s pre-eminent poet of the twentieth century. Born in Malaysia, but settling in South Africa at the age…

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La Création du Monde

A ballet inspired by a creation fable in Blaise Cendrars’s Anthologie nègre (1921), La Création du monde (The Creation of the World) was produced by…