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Literature Subject Overview

Literary modernism is a truly global and plural phenomenon, playing out in multiple cultural paradigms, in various timeframes, and in response to diverse experiences of…

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League of Nations (1919–1946)

The League of Nations (1919–1946) was an intergovernmental organisation formed after World War I to mediate disputes among its member nations through diplomacy and collective…

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Luhan, Mabel Dodge (1879–1962)

Mabel Evans Dodge Sterne Luhan was a writer and patron of the arts who hosted circles of visual and literary artists at her homes in…

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Lye, Len (1901–1980)

New Zealand native Len Lye was an experimental innovator in painting, sculpture, documentary film, and animation. After studying indigenous art in Samoa, he emigrated to…

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Lange, Dorothea (1895–1965)

Dorothea Lange is best known as a documentary photographer for the United States Department of Agriculture’s Resettlement Administration (later the Farm Security Administration) during the…

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Lindsay, Norman Alfred Williams (1879–1969)

Norman Lindsay was one of Australia’s most prominent (and most notorious) artists in the early twentieth century. Throughout his extensive career he worked in a…

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Lugones, Leopoldo (1874–1938)

The author of short stories, novels, essays, and journalism, Leopoldo Lugones is best known as Argentina’s most famous modernista writer, with several volumes of influential…

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Leroux, Etienne (1922–1989)

Etienne Leroux was the pseudonym of Stephanus Petrus Daniël le Roux. He was an innovative and eccentric writer, considered to be the greatest novelist among…

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Levin, Hanoch (1943–1999)

Levin, Hanoch is an Israeli playwright and short story writer. Born in the southern quarters of Tel Aviv to lower middle-class Polish immigrants Levin’s background…

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Lowry, Laurence Stephen (1887–1976)

L. S. Lowry was a modern British artist celebrated for his depictions of Salford and Manchester. As well as making portraits, landscapes, and seascapes, he…

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Locke, Alain LeRoy (1885–1954)

Alain Locke was an American philosopher, editor, and critic whose influence helped to inscribe modernist aesthetics within the history of black artistry, which he defined…

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Lam, Wifredo (1902–1982)

The work of Cuban artist Wifredo Lam is internationally recognized for its blending of European modernism, especially cubism and surrealism, with the visual culture of…

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Lewis, Sinclair (Harry) (1885–1951)

Sinclair Lewis was an American novelist, short-story writer, and playwright. Born in the small town of Sauk Centre, in Minnesota, Lewis was the youngest of…

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Le Bon, Gustave (1841–1931)

Gustave Le Bon was a French doctor and sociologist and a pioneering figure in social psychology. After completing medical studies in Paris he traveled extensively…

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Literary Modernism in Finland

Literary modernism in Finland falls into a set of distinctive sub-movements, defined, in part, by the two languages in which Finnish literature is expressed: Finnish…

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Laurencin, Marie (1883–1956)

Marie Laurencin was a painter, etcher, lithographer, illustrator, and decorative artist of the Parisian avant-garde in the early twentieth century. She is most widely known…

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Lévy-Brühl, Lucien (1857–1939)

Lucien Lévy-Brühl was a French philosopher who taught philosophy at the Sorbonne from 1899 to 1927. Investigating the psychology of ‘primitive’ societies, his book Les…

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Lasker-Schüler, Else (1868–1945)

Else Lasker-Schüler can be regarded as the most important German female modernist and is one of the few women affiliated with the Expressionist movement. Her…

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La Règle du jeu [The Rules of the Game]

La Règle du jeu [The Rules of the Game] is a 1939 humanist film by Jean Renoir satirizing the French aristocracy. Premiered at the brink…

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Lilanga, George (1934–2005)

George Lilanga was a contemporary Tanzanian artist best known for his colorful paintings and sculptures of mashetani, or devils in Kiswahili, and transforming a Makonde…

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Lim, Cheng Hoe (1912–1979)

Born in China, Lim Cheng Hoe moved to Singapore with his parents in 1919. Acknowledged as a notable early Singaporean artist, he showed artistic talent…

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Lemos, Fernando (1926--)

Known for his early photographic artwork, Fernando Lemos was associated with the Portuguese surrealists of the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to relocating to…

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Le Corbusier (1887–1965)

Le Corbusier was a Swiss architect and urbanist who acquired French nationality in 1930, having set up his studio (“the atelier for patient research”) in…

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Lissitzky, El (1890–1941)

The Soviet artist, photographer, designer, and architect Lazar Markovich (Mordukhaevich) Lissitzky grew up in a Jewish family in Smolensk in western Russia. In 1909 Lissitzky…