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Overview

Literature Subject Overview

Literary modernism is a truly global and plural phenomenon, playing out in multiple cultural paradigms, in various timeframes, and in response to diverse experiences of…

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Leitmotif

A leitmotif (from the German Leitmotiv: ‘guiding motif’) in its original sense is a musical theme that appears multiple times over the course of a…

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Lautner, John Edward (1911–1994)

While the American architect John Lautner may not have considered himself a modernist, he nevertheless made a significant contribution to the branch of modernist architecture…

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Lin, Yutang (林语堂) (1895–1976)

Lin Yutang (林语堂) was a major figure in the development of twentieth-century Chinese modernity. He was a scholar, inventor, educator and translator, as well as…

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Late Modernism

Late Modernism is a critics’ term rather than one that artists used themselves. Introducing it in the late 1970s, architectural critic Charles Jencks was probably…

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Lindsay, Vachel (1879–1931)

Vachel Lindsay was an American poet whose concern for developing a new, popular American language led him to become one of the first people to…

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Lynching Drama

Lynching dramas reflect the brutal history of racial violence in which black individuals, primarily black men, were murdered by a white mob with no repercussions…

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Le Film d’Art

Film d’Art was a French production company founded in February 1908 by businessman Paul Lafitte and backed by Pathé. The company united playwright Henri Lavedan…

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Lim, Hak Tai (1893–1963)

Lim Hak Tai, a Chinese émigré artist based in Singapore, was the founding principal and dean of the Nanyang Academy of Fine Arts (NAFA). Established…

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Lankesh, P. (1935–2000)

P. Lankesh was a prominent Kannada novelist, short story writer, playwright, and essayist. A strong voice in the Kannada public sphere from the 1970s to…

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Liu, Na’o (1905–1940)

On 3 September 1940 Liu Na’ou (1905–40), the Taiwan-born, Japan-educated leader of the Shanghai Neo-Sensation School, was killed by an unknown gunman. He had just…

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Livingstone, Douglas James (1932–1996)

Douglas Livingstone is regularly cited as South Africa’s pre-eminent poet of the twentieth century. Born in Malaysia, but settling in South Africa at the age…

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Locke, Alain LeRoy (1885–1954)

Alain Locke was an American philosopher, editor, and critic whose influence helped to inscribe modernist aesthetics within the history of black artistry, which he defined…

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Lam, Wifredo (1902–1982)

The work of Cuban artist Wifredo Lam is internationally recognized for its blending of European modernism, especially cubism and surrealism, with the visual culture of…

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Lewis, Sinclair (Harry) (1885–1951)

Sinclair Lewis was an American novelist, short-story writer, and playwright. Born in the small town of Sauk Centre, in Minnesota, Lewis was the youngest of…

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Le Bon, Gustave (1841–1931)

Gustave Le Bon was a French doctor and sociologist and a pioneering figure in social psychology. After completing medical studies in Paris he traveled extensively…

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Literary Modernism in Finland

Literary modernism in Finland falls into a set of distinctive sub-movements, defined, in part, by the two languages in which Finnish literature is expressed: Finnish…

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League of Nations (1919–1946)

The League of Nations (1919–1946) was an intergovernmental organisation formed after World War I to mediate disputes among its member nations through diplomacy and collective…

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Luhan, Mabel Dodge (1879–1962)

Mabel Evans Dodge Sterne Luhan was a writer and patron of the arts who hosted circles of visual and literary artists at her homes in…

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Lye, Len (1901–1980)

New Zealand native Len Lye was an experimental innovator in painting, sculpture, documentary film, and animation. After studying indigenous art in Samoa, he emigrated to…

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Lu, Xun (1881–1936)

Lu Xun, a pre-eminent man of letters in twentieth-century China, is widely regarded as the father of modern Chinese literature. Writing during China’s tumultuous transition…

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Lange, Dorothea (1895–1965)

Dorothea Lange is best known as a documentary photographer for the United States Department of Agriculture’s Resettlement Administration (later the Farm Security Administration) during the…

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Lindsay, Norman Alfred Williams (1879–1969)

Norman Lindsay was one of Australia’s most prominent (and most notorious) artists in the early twentieth century. Throughout his extensive career he worked in a…

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Lugones, Leopoldo (1874–1938)

The author of short stories, novels, essays, and journalism, Leopoldo Lugones is best known as Argentina’s most famous modernista writer, with several volumes of influential…