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Overview

Intellectual Currents Subject Overview

This section focusses on the historical, sociological, philosophical, economic, political, and scientific context of modernism. Entries cover individuals, coteries, movements, and events. The primary criterion…

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Impressionism (Painting)

Impressionism is an artistic movement that flourished in France between 1860 and 1890. The term has been widely adopted around the world to describe artistic…

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Iturriaga (Romero), Enrique (1918--)

Enrique Iturriaga is a Peruvian composer and music pedagogue. He is one of the lead representatives of the so-called Generación del 50, a Peruvian composers’…

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Im, Kwon-taek (1936--)

Im Kwon-taek, one of the most prominent South Korean filmmakers, helped to pave the way for the international success of the New Korean Cinema of…

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Ithipol Thangchalok (1946--)

Ithipol Thangchalok has established an international reputation as both a leading contemporary Thai artist, and a respected art educator. While studying at Silpakorn University he…

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Isrowuthakul, Santi (1945--)

Santi Isrowuthakul is an artist and activist who participated in the Artists’ Front of Thailand (AFT) (1974–1976). Born in Bangkok, Santi graduated with a master’s…

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Indian National Congress

The Indian National Congress is one of the largest and oldest democratic political organizations in the world, and one of two major parties in Indian…

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Inclán, Pedro Martínez (1883–1957)

The urban development of modern Havana and the emergence of a planning discourse in Cuba owes much of its existence to the efforts of architect,…

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Ivens, Joris (1898–1989)

Joris Ivens (Georg Henri Anton Ivens), nicknamed “The Flying Dutchman” for his globe-trotting career, was a Dutch documentary maker. His political commitment and deft use…

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Indigenous Modernisms

Indigenous modernism is not to be confused with earlier ideas of modern Indigenous art, though they do to some extent pre-empt it. In the mid-20th…

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Indian Group of Seven

The Indian Group of Seven is an ironic title given by a reporter from the Winnipeg Free Press to a collective of Indigenous artists from…

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Ichikawa, Sadanji II (1880–1940)

Ichikawa, Sadanji was Japan’s most popular actor from the 1910s to the 1930s, and is unique in having contributed to the modernist movement in both…

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Ichikawa, Ennosuke II (1888–1963)

Ichikawa Ennosuke II was a kabuki actor in the Meiji, Taishō, and Shōwa eras who collaborated with artists in the modern drama movement and was…

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Izumi, Kyōka (1873–1939)

Izumi Kyōka was a novelist and shinpa playwright whose plays provided the heart of the shinpa repertory and demonstrated a new model for dramatic literature.…

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Itō, Michio (1893–1961)

Itō Michio’s creative endeavors spanned dance, theatre, and film, just as his career spanned the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans, however, his life as a…

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Iranian New Wave

The Iranian New Wave began when a group of young Iranian directors—following developments in the Iranian cultural arena with origins in the political and social…

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Interior Monologue

One of the hallmarks of modernist style, interior monologue affords a prime opportunity for studying how writers ranging from James Joyce and Dorothy Richardson to…

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Isherwood, Christopher (1904–1986)

Christopher Isherwood was a British American novelist, memoirist, and playwright best known for The Berlin Diaries, a fictionalized portrayal of his experiences with the urban…

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Internationalism

The term ‘Internationalism’ (internationalisme; Internationalismus) was coined in the mid-nineteenth century to denote those movements that called for involvement in events beyond national and imperial…

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Israeli Art Music

Israeli Art Music concerns the study of art music penned in the Jewish community of mandatory Palestine, which since 14 May 1948 is the State…

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Irish Modernism

Modernism in Ireland was bound up with major social and political factors during the first part of the twentieth century, especially the effects of independence…

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Isokon (1931–1939)

Isokon was a British furniture and architectural design company founded in London in 1931. Led by architect Wells Coates and plywood manufacturer Jack Pritchard, Isokon…