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One Step

In the years before the entry of the United States into World War I, the One Step replaced the Two Step as the common popular…

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Ophüls, Max (1902–1957)

Max Ophüls is an important critic and filmmaker of the postwar period, known for his opulent set design, kinetic long-takes, and proto-feminist melodramas, a source…

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Opperman, Diederik Johannes (1914–1985)

Dirk Opperman is known as a poet whose poetry is deeply concerned with Africa as a physical and symbolic space. As a dominant poetic figure…

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Olympic Movement

At the close of the nineteenth century, French aristocrat Pierre de Coubertin (1863–1937) sought to revive the Olympics in an attempt to foster cultural diversity…

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Oz, Amos (1939– )

The Hebrew author Amos Oz (born Amos Klausner)—an essayist, professor of literature at Ben Gurion University of the Negev, and active contributor to Israeli and…

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Occultism, Spiritualism and Hermeticism

Sometimes called ‘hidden knowledge’, Occultism refers to beliefs and practices concerning the intersection of the material and spiritual worlds, purportedly representing the most ancient religious…

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O’Keeffe, Georgia (1887–1986)

Georgia O’Keeffe was one of the most important American and women artists of the twentieth century and a leading early abstract painter. She is most…

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Odoevtseva, Irina Vladimirovna (1895–1990)

Poet, memoirist, and novelist with roots in the Acmeist literary movement, Odoevtseva is best known for her two volumes of memoirs, which portray many of…

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Orwell, George (1903–1950)

George Orwell is the pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair. A writer, poet, journalist, broadcaster and critic, he is best known for his satirical novel Animal…

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Odets, Clifford (1906–1963)

One of the foremost American playwrights of the first half of the twentieth century, Clifford Odets is best known for his social realist plays and…

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Obstfelder, Sigbjørn (1866–1900)

Sigbjørn Obstfelder is considered the first Norwegian modernist writer. He wrote poetry, dramas and novels but is primarily known for his collection of poems, Digte…

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Orozco, José Clemente (1883–1949)

José Clemente Orozco was one of a trio of painters of the Mexican Mural Movement, called Los Tres Grandes (The Three Great Ones), the others…

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Owais, Hamed (1919–2011)

Born in Beni Soueif, Egypt, Hamed Owais is one of the leading painters of Egyptian social realism. He was a partisan of the ideals of…

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Onabolu, Aina (1882–1963)

Born on 13 September 1882 in Ijebu-Ode, Aina Onabolu was the pioneer of Nigerian Modern Art. He occasioned a radical revolution that facilitated the inclusion…

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O’Casey, Sean (1880–1964)

Born into Dublin tenement life in 1880, Sean O’Casey (originally John O’Casey) went on to become one of Ireland’s most important playwrights, best known for…

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O’Neill, Eugene (1888–1953)

Eugene O’Neill is regarded as the quintessential modernist among American playwrights, and many of his works show an affinity with the themes and methods of…

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Ocampo, Galo (1913–1985)

Galo Ocampo was a Filipino painter known for rejecting academic tradition and embracing Western modernism. He worked as a curator for the Presidential Museum at…

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Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove

The Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove is part of the story of Nigerian Modernism. Situated on the outskirts of the city of Osogbo in Southwest Nigeria,…

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Okundaye, Nike (1951--)

Chief (Mrs.) Oyenike Monica Okundaye, better known as Nike, is a painter and textile artist who has had a profound impact on the preservation and…

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Olesha, Yuri (1899–1960)

Yuri Olesha was a major figure in Soviet Russian modernism, known for his meticulous craftsmanship, original imagery, and unexpected perspective. He enjoyed great success as…

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Onchi, Kōshirō (1890–1955)

Onchi was a seminal leader of the modernist print movement in Japan known as Sōsaku Hanga and its most passionate advocate for recognition of the…

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O’Gorman, Juan (1905–1982)

Perhaps the best way to understand the Mexican architect and painter Juan O’Gorman is through his self-portrait of 1950 in which he depicts himself in…

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Ortiz, William (1947--)

Born in Salinas, Puerto Rico, William Oritz was raised in New York City. He studied composition at the Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico under…

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Owen, Wilfred (1893–1918)

Wilfred Edward Salter Owen (1893–1918) is among the most renowned British poets of the First World War (1914–1918). His style can best be described as…