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Overview

Modernism in Europe

We are living in a very singular moment of history. It is a moment of crisis, in the literal sense of that word. In every…

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Bauhaus

In 1919 a young architect named Walter Gropius initiated one of the most modern art schools of the twentieth century in the city of Weimar…

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Cubism

Cubism is an influential modernist art movement that emerged in Paris during the first decade of the twentieth century. The term was established by Parisian…

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Surrealism Overview

Soupault’s publication of Manifeste du Surréalism in 1924. Rising in the wake of the First World War, Surrealism revolted against a world that had become…

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Cubism [REVISED AND EXPANDED]

Cubism is an art movement that emerged in Paris during the first decade of the 20th century. It was a key movement in the birth…

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Pirandello, Luigi (1867–1936)

Born in the Sicilian town of Agrigento and educated in Palermo, Rome, and Bonn (Germany), the Nobel Prize winner (1934) Luigi Pirandello is a key…

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Rationalism

Rationalism [Ratsionalizm] was a modernist movement in Soviet architecture that was current in the 1920s and early 1930s. It was led by the architect and…

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Golosov, Il’ia (1883–1945)

Il’ia Aleksandrovich Golosov, one of the leading Soviet modernist architects of the 1920s, was born in Moscow into the family of a priest and was…

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Woolf, (Adeline) Virginia (1882–1941)

Virginia Woolf was one of the foremost literary innovators of the early twentieth century. A novelist, essayist, short-story writer and literary critic, she was also…

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Russell, Bertrand Arthur William (1872–1970)

Bertrand Russell, FRS, OM, and third earl Russell, was a mathematician, philosopher, social critic, political activist, writer, and Nobel laureate in literature. Russell was born…

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Falla (y Matheu), Manuel de (1876–1946)

Spanish composer Falla was the central figure of his generation, eclipsing composers such as Joaquín Turina and Joaquín Rodrigo. He blended Spanish musical nationalism, cultivated…

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Caro, Anthony (1924–2013)

Anthony Caro played a pivotal role in the development of sculpture in the 20th century. He began his career as an assistant to Henry Moore,…

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Nash, Paul (1889–1946)

Paul Nash was an artist who responded both to a British tradition of landscape painting, specifically to the art of William Blake, Samuel Palmer, and…

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Mendelsohn, Erich (1887–1953)

Erich Mendelsohn was born on March 21, 1887, in Allenstein, East Prussia. He gained his architectural education at the technical universities in Charlottenburg and Munich…

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Kuleshov, Lev Vladimirovich (1899–1970)

Lev Kuleshov was a Soviet director and theorist who initiated the montage movement of the 1920s. He proclaimed editing to be the primary authorial act…

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Scott, Michael (1905–1989)

Michael Scott was the foremost proponent of modern architecture in Ireland during the mid-20th century. He specialized in public commissions, particularly hospitals and transport hubs,…

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Żarnower [Żarnowerówna], Teresa (1895–1950)

Teresa Żarnower was a Polish painter, graphic artist, sculptor, and stage/architectural designer. One of the most prominent representatives of Polish Constructivism, Żarnower was also linked…

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Quantum Theory

Developed in the early 20th century, quantum theory is a branch of theoretical physics that concerns the unpredictable quality of particles at the quantum, or…

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Zangwill, Israel (1864–1926)

Israel Zangwill was a British-Jewish author, journalist, and activist. Among his best-known literary works are the novel The Children of the Ghetto (1892), and the…

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Dench, Christopher (1953--)

Christopher Dench is one of a group of British composers who emerged in the early 1980s associated with the notion of New Complexity (other composers…

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Connell, Amyas Douglas (1901–1980)

The New Zealand-born architect Amyas Connell was responsible for a number of strikingly modern buildings, mainly houses, in 1930s England. The first of these was…

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Pasolini, Pier Paolo (1922–1975)

Known in North America mainly as a provocative filmmaker, Pier Paolo Pasolini (March 6, 1922–November 2, 1975) is also celebrated in his native Italy as…

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Steichen, Eduard Jean (1879–1973)

Photographer, painter, curator and horticulturalist Eduard Jean Steichen was born in Luxembourg and immigrated to the US in 1881. He was self-taught, favoring soft, harmonious…

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Donatoni, Franco (1927–2000)

Composer and poet Franco Donatoni studied in Vienna before attending the Darmstadt summer music program, where he encountered Pierre Boulez and Karlheinz Stockhausen, among others.…