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Surrealism Overview

Soupault’s publication of Manifeste du Surréalism in 1924. Rising in the wake of the First World War, Surrealism revolted against a world that had become…

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Cubism

Cubism is an influential modernist art movement that emerged in Paris during the first decade of the twentieth century. The term was established by Parisian…

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Bauhaus

In 1919 a young architect named Walter Gropius initiated one of the most modern art schools of the twentieth century in the city of Weimar…

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Cubism [REVISED AND EXPANDED]

Cubism is an art movement that emerged in Paris during the first decade of the 20th century. It was a key movement in the birth…

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Modernism in Europe

We are living in a very singular moment of history. It is a moment of crisis, in the literal sense of that word. In every…

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Spectralism

Spectralism is a tendency in contemporary art music that takes the material attributes of sound as the point of departure for composition. Originating in France…

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Foxtrot

The foxtrot emerged circa 1914, most likely within African American practices, as a variation on the older duple meter one step popular with dancers since…

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Gubaidulina, Sofia Asgatovna (1931--)

Sofia Gubaidulina was born in Chistopol in the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, of mixed Russian and Tatar parentage. After graduating from Kazan Conservatoire in…

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Nono, Luigi (1924–90)

Luigi Nono stands out as one of the most uncompromising modernist composers of the Italian avant-garde. Together with Karlheinz Stockhausen and Pierre Boulez, Nono was…

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Shklovsky, Viktor (1893–1984)

Born in St Petersburg, Russia, Victor Borisovich Shklovsky (or Shklovskii; Ви́ктор Бори́сович Шкло́вский) was a literary critic, autobiographical novelist, and a leading figure of Russian…

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West, Rebecca (1892–1983)

Rebecca West was a novelist, journalist, essayist, and travel writer, and a central figure in twentieth-century literary and political culture. Her The Return of the…

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Zola, Emile (1840–1902)

Emile Zola was a key figure in French realism and a leading figure of the naturalist movement. A prolific novelist, journalist, and theorist, he is…

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Fokine, Michel (1880–1942)

Michel Fokine’s seventeen works for Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes (1909–29) revitalized ballet in the early twentieth century. In Fokine’s most successful works, the body became…

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Massine, Léonide (1896–1979)

Russian-born Léonide Massine’s career flourished in the cities of Western Europe, where he made his name as a lead dancer and choreographer for Serge Diaghilev’s…

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Pasternak, Boris (1890–1960)

Major Russian poet and writer, Pasternak, was recognized as a leading, original poetic talent with the collection My Sister Life (written 1917, published 1922). My…

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Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso (1876–1944)

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti was founder and leader of Futurism, the first intellectual and artistic movement that explicitly defined the codes of avant-garde practice in the…

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Jones, David (1895–1974)

David Jones, the poet, painter and engraver, was born in Brockley, Kent, in 1895. He was the youngest son of James Jones, a printer’s overseer…

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Jameson, Margaret Storm (1891–1986)

Storm Jameson was a novelist and critic born in Whitby, Yorkshire, and educated at the University of Leeds and King’s College London. Over her prolific…

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Cravan, Arthur (1887–1918)

Born Fabian Avernius Lloyd in Lausanne, Switzerland to expatriate English parents, Arthur Cravan was a self-styled ‘poet-pugilist,’ nephew of Oscar Wilde, and husband of British…

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Nijinska, Bronislava (1891–1972)

The premiere female ballet choreographer of the first half of the twentieth century, Bronislava Nijinska experienced the transformative power of the Russian Revolution and discovered…

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Bunting, Basil (1900–1985)

Basil Cheesman Bunting was a British poet, closely associated with Northern England and with late modernist poetics. A close friend of Ezra Pound’s, Bunting worked…

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Bennett, Arnold (1867–1931)

A prolific and popular author, English writer Arnold Bennett was one of the most important Realist/Naturalist writers of the early twentieth century. Strongly influenced by…