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Overview

Photography

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Paraskevaídis, Graciela (1940-)

Graciela Paraskevaídis is a composer, musicologist and educator who lies between referents of Latin American music production. Born and solidly formed in the city of…

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Politics and Cinema

The relationship between politics and the cinema is probably one of the most vexatious questions to have occupied the academic discipline of film studies, and…

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Porter, Edwin S. (1870–1941)

Edwin Stanton Porter was an American film exhibitor, producer, and director. He started his career in cinema in 1896 as a traveling exhibitor and moved…

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Portocarrero, René (1912–1985)

Part of the Cuban vanguardia (or vanguard movement), René Portocarrero broke with the academic style of art that prevailed in Cuba in order to create…

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Proust, Marcel (1871–1922)

Proust was a French novelist and essayist known for his masterpiece À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time), published in seven…

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Pärt, Arvo (1934–)

Arvo Pärt is an Estonian composer whose music has had phenomenal success worldwide since his radical stylistic change from an overtly modernistic aesthetic to a…

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Piaget, Jean (1896–1980)

Born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, Jean William Fritz Piaget pioneered the field of cognitive developmental psychology using empirical methods to study children. Like Walter Benjamin, Piaget…

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Plessy vs. Ferguson

Plessy vs. Ferguson is a legal decision made by the United States Supreme Court upholding the constitutionality of ‘separate but equal’ laws popular in the…

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Prague Linguistic Circle, The

The Prague Linguistic Circle was a group of linguists, philologists, literary theorists, and cultural analysts who began meeting on a regular basis in 1926 and…

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Paniker, K. Ayyappa (1930–2006)

K. Ayyappa Paniker—poet, translator, critic, editor, and academic—was a pioneering practitioner and interpreter of the modernist impulse in Malayalam literature. His poetry in Malayalam has…

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Plaatje, Solomon Tshekisho (1876–1932)

Born in 1876 in the rural Free State, Sol Plaatje is descended from the Barolong boo-Modiboa, royals who had been deposed in the 1500s. The…

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Posada, José Guadalupe (1852–1913)

A seminal printmaker of Mexico City at the turn of the twentieth century, José Guadalupe Posada is most recognizable for his calaveras, images of skulls…

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Popular Front

An alliance of left-wing movements in France, the Popular Front (Front Populaire) won the May 1936 elections, leading to the first French government headed by…

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Peggy Guggenheim (1898–1979)

In any history of the migrations and transformations of modernism, Peggy Guggenheim (1898–1979) deserves a privileged place. She shares with Marcel Duchamp, a close friend…

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Pritchard, John Craven (Jack) (1899–1992)

Jack Pritchard was a British furniture manufacturer and design patron who co-founded the Isokon design company in 1931. Under his leadership, Isokon developed mass-produced, standardized…

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Palucca, Gret (1902–1993)

Gret Palucca took a distinctive improvisational and pedagogical approach to German modern dance in a career spanning four different political systems in Germany. After studying…

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Persona

Ingmar Bergman’s Persona (Sweden, 1966) is often described as an intense drama about the relationship between a famous actress and the inexperienced nurse assigned to…

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Pulp Modernism

Pulp magazines are named for the low-quality pulpwood paper on which they were printed. They are part of the modernist periodical marketplace along with the…

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Propaganda

Propaganda is the term for a variety of communication phenomena developed in the 20th century. As such, its meaning has changed over time from a…

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Physical Culture

The obsession with physical culture apparent throughout the tense and formative modernist movement extended well beyond sport, games, and purposive exercise through gymnastics, body building,…

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Parnell, Charles Stewart (1846–1891)

Charles Stewart Parnell was the first president of the Irish Land League (1879) and the leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party (1879–1891). Born to a…

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Péguy, Charles (1873–1914)

French writer of the beginning of the twentieth century Charles Péguy was a socialist, a dreyfusard, a republican, a nationalist, a catholic, a mystic, successively…

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Panofsky, Erwin (1892–1968)

Erwin Panofsky was a German-American art historian who from 1926 to 1933 worked alongside Ernst Cassirer (1874–1945) at the University of Hamburg and at the…