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Intellectual Currents Subject Overview

This section focusses on the historical, sociological, philosophical, economic, political, and scientific context of modernism. Entries cover individuals, coteries, movements, and events. The primary criterion…

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Futurism

Futurism emerged at the beginning of the twentieth century as a movement that explicitly conceptualized the process of literary and artistic experimentation as part of…

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Photography

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Bauhaus

In 1919 a young architect named Walter Gropius initiated one of the most modern art schools of the twentieth century in the city of Weimar…

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Montage

As an aesthetic principle, montage, defined as the assemblage of disparate elements into a composite whole often by way of juxtaposition, is most often associated…

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Modernism in Canada and The United States

In Canada and the United States modernism emerges from transnational engagements with global intellectual movements while also grappling with local intellectual, cultural, and political developments…

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Dadaism

Dada began in Zurich, Switzerland, in the midst of World War I. Several expatriate artists converged in the city to escape the brutal and seemingly…

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Social Realism

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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…

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Symbolism Overview

Symbolism is a late-nineteenth-century literary movement centred mostly around the work of poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine, Philippe Villiers de L’Isle-Adam,…

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Reinhardt, Ad (1913–1967)

Ad Reinhardt, the American painter and illustrator-cartoonist, was born in 1913 and raised in New York City. Reinhardt attended Columbia College, pursued graduate studies in…

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Beardsley, Aubrey Vincent (1872–1898)

Aubrey Beardsley was an English illustrator of the late Victorian period. His fluid, sinuous illustrations were influenced by Japanese prints and by the curvilinear Art…

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Boccioni, Umberto (1882–1916)

Umberto Boccioni was the most famous painter and sculptor of the Italian Futurist movement. After an early career as a painter and illustrator, he joined…

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Gattorno, Antonio (1904–1980)

Cuban painter and illustrator Antonio Gattorno is recognized as one of the founding members of the Cuban vanguardia (avant-garde) of the late 1920s to early…

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Kahlo, Frida (1907–1954)

One of the most recognizable Mexican painters of the twentieth century, Frida Kahlo produced around 200 paintings, dozens of drawings and an illustrated journal. She…

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Abdullah, Basuki (1915–1993)

Basuki Abdullah was the son of the painter and illustrator Abdullah Suriosubroto (Mas Abdullah), who taught him and a number of other artists their basic…

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Ben Abdallah, Jellal (1921--)

Jellal Ben Abdallah is a Tunisian artist and illustrator based in Sidi Bou Saïd. He studied at the Lycée Carnot in Tunis. His early drawings…

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Depero, Fortunato (1892–1960)

Fortunato Depero was an artist, illustrator, and stage designer who played a central role in developing the art of modern typography. Affiliated with the Italian…

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Turki, Zoubeïr (1924–2009)

Zoubeïr Turki was a Tunisian artist and illustrator. He studied at the Zaituna Mosque-University and received his artistic training at the École des Beaux-Arts in…

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Laurencin, Marie (1883–1956)

Marie Laurencin was a painter, etcher, lithographer, illustrator, and decorative artist of the Parisian avant-garde in the early twentieth century. She is most widely known…

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Sloan, John (1871–1951)

Painter, etcher, and illustrator John Sloan was a leading figure in the Ashcan School, a group of turn-of-the-century urban realists who used dark palettes and…

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Ray, Satyajit (1921–1992)

Satyajit Ray was an Indian filmmaker, writer, music director, and illustrator, considered among the greatest auteur-directors of 20th-century cinema, along with the likes of Akira…

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Bachi, Marwan Kassab (1934--)

Born in Damascus, the Syrian painter Marwan Kassab Bachi, who often goes by only the name Marwan, began his career in Damascus before immigrating to…

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Beier, Georgina (1938--)

Georgina Beier, née Betts, was born in London in 1938. At age sixteen she enrolled in the Kingston Art School; however, she dropped out after…

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Enani, Salah (1955–)

Salah Enani is best known for his painted compositions, which depict playfully rendered figures that have exaggerated caricatured features. His works often present recognizable Egyptian…