Search Results 1 - 25 of 162


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Overview

Intellectual Currents Subject Overview

This section focusses on the historical, sociological, philosophical, economic, political, and scientific context of modernism. Entries cover individuals, coteries, movements, and events. The primary criterion…

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Bateson, Gregory (1904–1980)

Gregory Bateson was an English anthropologist, social scientist, communications theorist, and cyberneticist. His most famous work, Steps to an Ecology of Mind (1972), is a…

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Benedict, Ruth (1887–1948)

Known as America’s first woman anthropologist, Ruth Fulton Benedict was a cultural relativist and folklorist. She studied anthropology under Franz Boas (1858–1942) at Columbia University,…

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Bergson, Henri (1859–1941)

Henri Bergson was a leading philosopher of France’s Third Republic. A graduate of the prestigious École Normale Supérieure, he was appointed Chair of Modern Philosophy…

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Berlin Conference (1884–1885)

The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 ushered in what became known as the ‘New Imperialism’. While the first waves of European expansion had focused on the…

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Bernays, Edward (1891–1995)

Edward Louis Bernays retains a place in the history of modernity for synthesizing Freudian psychology, political communication (or propaganda) and the media. The fruit of…

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Bernstein, Eduard (1850–1932)

Eduard Bernstein was a prominent politician in the German Social Democratic Party (SPD), which in the late nineteenth century was the largest workers’ party in…

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Besant, Annie (1847–1933)

Born Annie Wood, Annie Besant was an English political activist and spiritualist with Irish heritage. She married British clergyman Frank Besant in 1867; they separated…

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Big Bang Theory

The Big Bang theory is a scientific model of the universe that posits a state of dense, centralized matter before the current, observable expansion of…

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Boas, Franz (1858–1942)

Franz Boas was a founder of the fields of modern anthropology and ethnography. He created the anthropology department at Boston’s Clark University and oversaw the…

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The Boer War (1899–1902)

The British Empire waged two wars in southern Africa at the close of the nineteenth century. In the First Boer War (or Transvaal War) of…

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Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901)

The Boxer Rebellion (November 1899–September 1901) was a Chinese national uprising against what was seen as the corrupting influence of western ideologies and practices. Initiated…

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Brentano, Franz (1838–1917)

Born in Marienberg, Germany, and active as a philosophy professor and Privatdozent (unsalaried teacher) at universities in Würzburg (1872–73) and Vienna (1874–1895), Franz Clemens Brentano…

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Brooks, Cleanth (1906–1994)

Cleanth Brooks was born in Murray, Kentucky, and spent most of the first half of his life in the American South. He taught at Louisiana…

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Bryher (1894–1983)

Born in Margate, England, the illegitimate daughter of British multi-millionaire Sir John Ellerman, Bryher resisted gender and marriage conventions throughout her life. Best known as…

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Buber, Martin (1878–1965)

Existential philosopher, essayist, translator and editor, Martin (Mordechai) Buber (מרטין בובר) was born in Austria and spent his earlier years studying in Vienna and Lemberg…

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Dewey, John (1859–1952)

John Dewey was an American philosopher, educational theorist, and one of the three major pragmatists, along with William James and Charles Saunders Peirce. After obtaining…

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Horkheimer, Max (1895–1973)

Born near Stuttgart, Germany, the philosopher Max Horkheimer, who obtained his doctorate from the University of Frankfurt, is best known as a leader of the…

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Jung, Carl (1875–1961)

Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and an early leader in the psychoanalytic movement, which he left to found analytical psychology. Heir-apparent to Sigmund Freud,…

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Kojève, Alexandre (1902–1968)

Alexandre Kojève was a French philosopher of Russian birth, most remembered for his introduction of Hegel into French and Continental thought. Kojève’s work on Hegel…

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Le Bon, Gustave (1841–1931)

Gustave Le Bon was a French doctor and sociologist and a pioneering figure in social psychology. After completing medical studies in Paris he traveled extensively…

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The Lindsay Family (1870–1958)

The Lindsays were a multigenerational family of artists, designers, curators, and authors in Australia. The originating generation, who made the most quantifiable contribution to modern…

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Brandes, Georg Morris Cohen (1842–1927)

The Danish literary critic Georg Brandes is known as the force behind the modern breakthrough in Scandinavian literature in the late 19th century. Inspired by…

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Ellis, Havelock (1859–1939)

Henry Havelock Ellis was a pioneer of sexology, the scientific study of human sexuality. As he details in his memoir My Life (1939), he grew…