Search Results 1 - 25 of 226


content unlocked
Overview

Intellectual Currents

This section focusses on the historical, sociological, philosophical, economic, political, and scientific context of modernism. Entries cover individuals, coteries, movements, and events. The primary criterion…

content locked
content locked
Article

Weininger, Otto (1880–1903)

Otto Weininger was an Austrian philosopher and racial theorist. Born in Vienna to Jewish parents, he committed suicide five months after the publication of Sex…

content locked
Article

Evolutionism

Evolutionism refers to the notion that basic life forms increase in complexity over time due to environmental adaptation. While commonly attributed to Charles Darwin (1809–1882),…

content locked
Article

Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund (1903–69)

Born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund to an Italian Catholic mother and an assimilated Jewish father, Adorno would take his mother’s vaguely aristocratic last name. Philosopher, aesthetician,…

content locked
Article

Orage, A. R. (1873–1934)

Born in Dacre, Yorkshire, England, Alfred Richard Orage was a British intellectual and writer and the editor of The New Age magazine. The son of…

content locked
Article

Benjamin, Walter (1892–1940)

Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin was a philosopher, essayist and literary critic associated with the Institut für Sozialforschung (Frankfurt Institute for Social Research). Initially trained in…

content locked
Article

National Socialism and Fascism

To appreciate that the various forms of fascism, particularly German National Socialism under Adolf Hitler’s Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party commonly…

content locked
Article

Lukács, György (1885–1971)

György Lukács was a Hungarian philosopher and literary critic. Born into a wealthy Jewish family, he spent his youth in Berlin and Vienna studying German…

content locked
Article

Gyre

The term “gyre” describes the spiral motion of matter that widens and narrows as it moves around an axis. Also represented as a vortex, a…

content locked
Article

The Vienna Circle

In 1922 Moritz Schlick (1882–1936) transformed the Verein Ernst Mach (Ernst Mach Society), a weekly reading group concerned with logical positivism, into an international assembly…

content locked
Article

Theory of Relativity, The

The Theory of Relativity is the name given to two separate theories put forth by Albert Einstein (1879–1955): ‘Special Relativity’ and ‘General Relativity’. When first…

content locked
Article

Tarde, Gabriel (1843–1904)

Gabriel Tarde was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and criminologist. In The Laws of Imitation (1880), he suggests that imitation drives the development of language…

content locked
Article

Nazi Modernism

Nazi Modernism is not a contradiction in terms, even if Nazi-era rhetoric and propaganda directed against Entartete Kunst powerfully suggested that this was the case.…

content locked
Article

Lin, Yutang (林语堂) (1895–1976)

Lin Yutang (林语堂) was a major figure in the development of twentieth-century Chinese modernity. He was a scholar, inventor, educator and translator, as well as…

content locked
Article

Syndicalism

Syndicalism is a social and political program advocating an economic system based on equal ownership of production and democratic rule by federated trade unions. Peculiar…

content locked
Article

Structuralism

Structuralism, generally described, is a twentieth-century intellectual movement associated with linguistic studies in Europe, despite its vast applicability and many adherents. An initial aim of…

content locked
Article

Turing, Alan Mathison (1912–1954)

Alan Mathison Turing is known as the father of modern computer science. Of his early achievements he helped to bring the Second World War to…

content locked
Article

Piaget, Jean (1896–1980)

Born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, Jean William Fritz Piaget pioneered the field of cognitive developmental psychology using empirical methods to study children. Like Walter Benjamin, Piaget…

content locked
Article

Plessy vs. Ferguson

Plessy vs. Ferguson is a legal decision made by the United States Supreme Court upholding the constitutionality of ‘separate but equal’ laws popular in the…

content locked
Article

Technocracy

A broad notion of technocracy can be traced back to ancient Greece. The narrow notion of the term is distinctly modern, inspired by the Industrial…

content locked
Article

Malinowski, Bronisław Kasper (1884–1942)

Born Bronisław Kasper Malinowski to a family in the Polish nobility (the szlachta), Malinowski made contributions to anthropology through his text Argonauts of the Western…

content locked
Article

Gladstone, William Ewart (1809–1898)

William Gladstone was a British politician who served as prime minister four times during his career, his first premiership lasting from 1868 until 1874. He…

content locked
Article

Vaihinger, Hans (1852–1933)

Hans Vaihinger is known chiefly for the fictionalist outlook developed in his 1911 Philosophie des als ob (The Philosophy of As-If), a text that has…

content locked
Article

Scheler, Max (1874–1928)

Scheler was a philosopher in the phenomenological school. His mother was Jewish; his father was Protestant. In high school he became a Catholic but abandoned…