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Overview

Intellectual Currents Subject Overview

This section focusses on the historical, sociological, philosophical, economic, political, and scientific context of modernism. Entries cover individuals, coteries, movements, and events. The primary criterion…

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Nazi Modernism

Nazi Modernism is not a contradiction in terms, even if Nazi-era rhetoric and propaganda directed against Entartete Kunst powerfully suggested that this was the case.…

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Lin, Yutang (林语堂) (1895–1976)

Lin Yutang (林语堂) was a major figure in the development of twentieth-century Chinese modernity. He was a scholar, inventor, educator and translator, as well as…

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Syndicalism

Syndicalism is a social and political program advocating an economic system based on equal ownership of production and democratic rule by federated trade unions. Peculiar…

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Structuralism

Structuralism, generally described, is a twentieth-century intellectual movement associated with linguistic studies in Europe, despite its vast applicability and many adherents. An initial aim of…

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Turing, Alan Mathison (1912–1954)

Alan Mathison Turing is known as the father of modern computer science. Of his early achievements he helped to bring the Second World War to…

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Piaget, Jean (1896–1980)

Born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, Jean William Fritz Piaget pioneered the field of cognitive developmental psychology using empirical methods to study children. Like Walter Benjamin, Piaget…

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Plessy vs. Ferguson

Plessy vs. Ferguson is a legal decision made by the United States Supreme Court upholding the constitutionality of ‘separate but equal’ laws popular in the…

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Technocracy

A broad notion of technocracy can be traced back to ancient Greece. The narrow notion of the term is distinctly modern, inspired by the Industrial…

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Malinowski, Bronisław Kasper (1884–1942)

Born Bronisław Kasper Malinowski to a family in the Polish nobility (the szlachta), Malinowski made contributions to anthropology through his text Argonauts of the Western…

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Gladstone, William Ewart (1809–1898)

William Gladstone was a British politician who served as prime minister four times during his career, his first premiership lasting from 1868 until 1874. He…

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Vaihinger, Hans (1852–1933)

Hans Vaihinger is known chiefly for the fictionalist outlook developed in his 1911 Philosophie des als ob (The Philosophy of As-If), a text that has…

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Scheler, Max (1874–1928)

Scheler was a philosopher in the phenomenological school. His mother was Jewish; his father was Protestant. In high school he became a Catholic but abandoned…

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Prague Linguistic Circle, The

The Prague Linguistic Circle was a group of linguists, philologists, literary theorists, and cultural analysts who began meeting on a regular basis in 1926 and…

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Treitschke, Heinrich von (1834–1896)

Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke was a historian and political writer in the German Empire. Born in Dresden, Treitschke studied in Leipzig, Bonn, Tübingen, and Freiburg…

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Weston, Jessie (1850–1928)

Jessie Laidlay Weston was a British independent scholar and folklorist best known for her influential study From Ritual to Romance (1920), which sought to trace…

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Marburg School

The Marburg School is a term used to describe a group of Neo-Kantian philosophers at the University of Marburg in the second half of the…

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Blitz

The Blitz during World War II both curtailed and provoked creative expression. Key figures of the modernist movement re-evaluated the politics underlying their aesthetics at…

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Plaatje, Solomon Tshekisho (1876–1932)

Born in 1876 in the rural Free State, Sol Plaatje is descended from the Barolong boo-Modiboa, royals who had been deposed in the 1500s. The…

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Popular Front

An alliance of left-wing movements in France, the Popular Front (Front Populaire) won the May 1936 elections, leading to the first French government headed by…

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Bernays, Edward (1891–1995)

Edward Louis Bernays retains a place in the history of modernity for synthesizing Freudian psychology, political communication (or propaganda) and the media. The fruit of…

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Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901)

The Boxer Rebellion (November 1899–September 1901) was a Chinese national uprising against what was seen as the corrupting influence of western ideologies and practices. Initiated…

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The Black Arts Movement

The Black Arts movement (BAM) spanned the period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s and is considered an artistic extension of the Black Power movement.…

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The Boer War (1899–1902)

The British Empire waged two wars in southern Africa at the close of the nineteenth century. In the First Boer War (or Transvaal War) of…

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Négritude

The literary and cultural movement known as négritude was started in Paris in 1932 by Black students from French-speaking colonies in West Africa, the Caribbean…