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Article

Propaganda By Beard, David

DOI: 10.4324/0123456789-REM1831-1
Published: 26/04/2018
Retrieved: 25 March 2019, from
https://www.rem.routledge.com/articles/propaganda

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Propaganda is the term for a variety of communication phenomena developed in the 20th century. As such, its meaning has changed over time from a largely neutral description of public relations and political communication towards an account of systematically distorted communication. The earliest major American proponent of the term, Edward Bernays (1891–1995), claimed that the ‘conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society’ (Bernays, 1928: 1). Bernays believed that ‘propaganda’, for him, a political variation on public relations work, was a tool used by political organizations and eventually businesses to organize and manipulate the desires, actions and will of the masses.

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26/04/2018

Article DOI

10.4324/0123456789-REM1831-1

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Citing this article:

Beard, David. "Propaganda." The Routledge Encyclopedia of Modernism. : Taylor and Francis, 2016. Date Accessed 25 Mar. 2019 https://www.rem.routledge.com/articles/propaganda. doi:10.4324/0123456789-REM1831-1

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