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Overview

Modernism in Europe

We are living in a very singular moment of history. It is a moment of crisis, in the literal sense of that word. In every…

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Bauhaus

In 1919 a young architect named Walter Gropius initiated one of the most modern art schools of the twentieth century in the city of Weimar…

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Cubism

Cubism is an influential modernist art movement that emerged in Paris during the first decade of the twentieth century. The term was established by Parisian…

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Surrealism Overview

Soupault’s publication of Manifeste du Surréalism in 1924. Rising in the wake of the First World War, Surrealism revolted against a world that had become…

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Cubism [REVISED AND EXPANDED]

Cubism is an art movement that emerged in Paris during the first decade of the 20th century. It was a key movement in the birth…

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Stepanova, Varvara Fedorovna (1894–1958)

Varvara Stepanova was a Russian artist. Although she made her mark as an innovative painter in Moscow exhibitions (1920), Stepanova became particularly well known as…

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Parnakh, Valentin Yakovlevich (1891–1951)

Brother of the celebrated poet Sofia Parnok, Valentin Parnakh was a Russo-Soviet dancer, jazz musician, actor, poet, and translator, a mover and shaker of the…

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Bluvshtain (Sela), Rachel (1890–1931)

Rachel Bluvshtain was the most salient and recognizable symbol of Labour Zionism in the 20th century and remains one of the most popular Hebrew poets…

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MacInnes, Colin (1914–1976)

Colin MacInnes was an English novelist, essayist, and radio broadcaster best known for his commentary on popular culture and his series of three novels set…

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Mukařovský, Jan (1891–1975)

Czech linguist and literary theorist Jan Mukařovský was a leading member of the Prague Linguistic Circle and a prominent contributor to the project of structuralist…

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Schmitt, Carl (1888–1985)

A conservative German jurist, political theorist, and Roman Catholic, Schmitt became the most significant legal mind of Weimar and then Nazi Germany. His first major…

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Art Deco

Art Deco was the predominant decorative style in Europe and the United States between the World Wars, before spreading internationally and reaching its climax in…

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Nijinsky, Vaslav (1889–1950)

Vaslav Nijinsky was a Russian dancer and choreographer of Polish descent. He achieved international renown as the star of Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes Company between…

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League of Nations (1919–1946)

The League of Nations (1919–1946) was an intergovernmental organisation formed after World War I to mediate disputes among its member nations through diplomacy and collective…

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Sombart, Werner (1863–1941)

Werner Sombart, German economist and sociologist, was born into an upper-class family in Ermsleben. After studying economics and law, Sombart received his doctoral degree from…

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Atget, Jean Eugène Auguste (1857–1927)

Eugène Atget employed one of the defining instruments of modernity—the camera—to produce a comprehensive photographic record of what modern city planning was about to destroy:…

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Propaganda

Propaganda is the term for a variety of communication phenomena developed in the 20th century. As such, its meaning has changed over time from a…

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Troeltsch, Ernst (1865–1923)

Ernst Troeltsch was a liberal German Protestant theologian and philosopher of religion whose work spans the last decades of the German Empire and the early…

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Starevich, Vladislav (1882–1965)

Pioneering puppet animator Vladislav Starevich was born to Polish parents in political exile in Moscow. He initially filmed ethnographic and entomological subjects for Moscow’s Khanzhonkov…

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Foregger, Nikolai Mikhailovich (1892–1939)

A Soviet artist, critic, designer, choreographer, and theatre director, Nikolai Mikhailovich Foregger graduated from Law School at Kiev University, with a specialisation in medieval French…

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Godard, Jean-Luc (1930–)

One of the most important filmmakers in the latter half of the 20th century, Jean-Luc Godard’s reputation remains enduringly linked with the French nouvelle vague…

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Luhan, Mabel Dodge (1879–1962)

Mabel Evans Dodge Sterne Luhan was a writer and patron of the arts who hosted circles of visual and literary artists at her homes in…

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Physical Culture

The obsession with physical culture apparent throughout the tense and formative modernist movement extended well beyond sport, games, and purposive exercise through gymnastics, body building,…