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Anti-Semitism including the Holocaust

Anti-Semitism, a term coined in Europe at the end of the 19th century, is the hatred of Jews and Jewishness, the latter being perceived in…

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Modernism in Europe

We are living in a very singular moment of history. It is a moment of crisis, in the literal sense of that word. In every…

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Social Realism

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Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945)

Adolf Hitler was the dominant political figure in German Nazism. He became chairman of the Nazionalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei [the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or…

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Zionism

Zionism is the umbrella term used to describe the various strains of Jewish nationalism that grew out of other 19th-century nationalist ideologies and movements. Zionist…

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Céline, Louis-Ferdinand (1894–1964)

Louis-Ferdinand Céline was one of the most controversial and innovative authors of the twentieth century. Known for his use of insults, slang, and ellipses in…

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Maritain, Jacques (1882–1973)

Jacques Maritain was a leader among those who attempted to update and transform Catholic teaching for the modern world. Born to a Protestant republican, he…

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National Socialism and Fascism

To appreciate that the various forms of fascism, particularly German National Socialism under Adolf Hitler’s Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party commonly…

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Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund (1903–69)

Born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund to an Italian Catholic mother and an assimilated Jewish father, Adorno would take his mother’s vaguely aristocratic last name. Philosopher, aesthetician,…

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Ridge, Lola (1873–1941)

A proletarian modernist, the poet Lola Ridge is best known for her work published between 1918 and 1922, which coincided with her editorship of Broom…

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Entartete Kunst

Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art) is a term that was used by Nazi authorities to identify, censure, and confiscate art they considered inconsistent with their ideology.…

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Yakobson, Leonid (1904–1975)

A Russian dancer and choreographer, Leonid Veniaminovich Yakobson choreographed for the Kirov and Bolshoi ballets from 1930 to the early 1970s, during which time he…

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Weininger, Otto (1880–1903)

Otto Weininger was an Austrian philosopher and racial theorist. Born in Vienna to Jewish parents, he committed suicide five months after the publication of Sex…

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The Dreyfus Affair (1894–1906)

The Dreyfus Affair was a French political controversy resulting from the unjust conviction and imprisonment of Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859–1935), a Jewish artillery officer, for…

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Maurras, Charles (1868–1952)

Charles Maurras was a controversial French poet and political theorist. Born in southern France to a royalist mother, Maurras became notorious during the Dreyfus Affair…

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Sombart, Werner (1863–1941)

Werner Sombart, German economist and sociologist, was born into an upper-class family in Ermsleben. After studying economics and law, Sombart received his doctoral degree from…

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Feuchtwanger, Lion (1884–1958)

Born into a Jewish family in Munich, Lion Feuchtwanger lived in Berlin from 1925 to 1933 when Hitler’s accession to power forced him into exile,…

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Lasker-Schüler, Else (1868–1945)

Else Lasker-Schüler can be regarded as the most important German female modernist and is one of the few women affiliated with the Expressionist movement. Her…

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Kazan, Elia (1909–2003)

Elia Kazan is arguably one of the most influential directors of mid-century mainstream America. Kazan is renowned for his introduction of the Moscow Art Theatre’s…

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Frankfurt School

The Frankfurt School (Institute für Sozialforschung) was founded in 1923 by Felix Weil and fellow students Max Horkheimer and Friedrich Pollack, and was originally endowed…

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Treitschke, Heinrich von (1834–1896)

Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke was a historian and political writer in the German Empire. Born in Dresden, Treitschke studied in Leipzig, Bonn, Tübingen, and Freiburg…

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Propaganda

Propaganda is the term for a variety of communication phenomena developed in the 20th century. As such, its meaning has changed over time from a…

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Altenberg, Peter (1859–1919)

Born in Vienna on 9 March 1859, the Jewish-Austrian poet Peter Altenberg (birth name: Richard Engländer) became a literary sensation with his characteristically telegraphic writing…

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Baum, Vicki (1888–1960)

Vicki Baum was born as Hedwig Baum to a Jewish family in Vienna. Trained as a musician in her youth, Baum studied the harp at…