Search Results 1 - 25 of 41


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Allen, Barney (1902–1967)

Barney Allen was the pseudonym of Solomon Allen, a Jewish-Canadian novelist from Toronto, Ontario. His writing combined influences from James Joyce and Sigmund Freud. His…

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Alienation

From the Christian doctrine of original sin, through G. W. F. Hegel’s conception of freedom, and the situated subject of existentialist thought in the wake…

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Brentano, Franz (1838–1917)

Born in Marienberg, Germany, and active as a philosophy professor and Privatdozent (unsalaried teacher) at universities in Würzburg (1872–73) and Vienna (1874–1895), Franz Clemens Brentano…

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Ellis, Havelock (1859–1939)

Henry Havelock Ellis was a pioneer of sexology, the scientific study of human sexuality. As he details in his memoir My Life (1939), he grew…

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Jung, Carl (1875–1961)

Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and an early leader in the psychoanalytic movement, which he left to found analytical psychology. Heir-apparent to Sigmund Freud,…

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Weininger, Otto (1880–1903)

Otto Weininger was an Austrian philosopher and racial theorist. Born in Vienna to Jewish parents, he committed suicide five months after the publication of Sex…

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Freud, Lucian (1922–2011)

Lucian Freud was a British painter and draughtsman whose work is characterized by his intense figure studies and muted palette. Born in Berlin on 8…

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Ernst, Max (1891–1976)

Max Ernst was a painter, sculptor and printmaker. He was born in Germany, but he lived in Paris and then New York; he returned to…

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H.D. (Hilda Doolittle) (1886–1961)

Perhaps best known as one of the founding imagists, H.D. was also a novelist, essayist and actor active throughout the entire modernist period. From her…

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Piaget, Jean (1896–1980)

Born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, Jean William Fritz Piaget pioneered the field of cognitive developmental psychology using empirical methods to study children. Like Walter Benjamin, Piaget…

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Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939)

Sigmund (Sigismund Schlomo) Freud was an Austrian psychiatrist and the founder of psychoanalysis, who systematized theories of the unconscious and psychosexual development. Freud published case…

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Bernays, Edward (1891–1995)

Edward Louis Bernays retains a place in the history of modernity for synthesizing Freudian psychology, political communication (or propaganda) and the media. The fruit of…

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Hogarth Press

The Hogarth Press was a publishing company run by Leonard and Virginia Woolf. A small independent publisher, the Press produced works by modernist thinkers and…

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Zweig, Arnold (1887–1968)

Arnold Zweig was born on November 10, 1887 to a Jewish family in Glogau, Silesia (now Glogów, Poland). As an anti-war and anti-fascist activist as…

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Loy, Mina (1882–1966)

Mina Loy, born Mina Gertrude Lowry, (1882–1966), was a British artist, designer, model, novelist, nurse, playwright and poet, with ties to the Dadaist, Futurist and…

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Tanguy, Yves (1900–1955)

Yves Tanguy was a French painter and one of the principal members of the Surrealist group. His main artistic output consisted of oil paintings, which…

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Elytis, Odysseus (1911–1996)

“For me the Aegean is not merely a part of nature, but rather a kind of signature,” Odysseus Elytis suggested in a 1972 interview with…

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Négritude

The literary and cultural movement known as négritude was started in Paris in 1932 by Black students from French-speaking colonies in West Africa, the Caribbean…

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Schnitzler, Arthur (1862–1931)

Arthur Schnitzler was a leading exponent of Viennese modernism. The son of a Jewish laryngologist, Schnitzler studied and practised medicine before devoting himself exclusively to…

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Durkheim, Émile (1858–1917)

David Émile Durkheim was a founding figure of sociology in France. His conceptual development of the “division of labour” (1893) remains key to a sociological…

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The Waste Land (1922)

The Waste Land is an influential and experimental 435-line poem written by Thomas Stearns Eliot and first published in 1922. Structurally, it is a pastiche…

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Frazer, Sir James George (1854–1941)

James George Frazer was a Scottish classicist, social theorist, anthropologist, and historian of religion. He was a Fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge University. In addition…

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DYN (1942–1945)

In Mexico City, at the height of World War II, the Viennese expatriate artist Wolfgang Paalen founded and edited DYN, an international art journal that…

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Automatism

Both Dada and Surrealist writers and artists experimented with “automatic” creative production. Dadaists including Francis Picabia, Tristan Tzara, Hans Arp, and Kurt Schwitters wrote “automatic”…

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The Great Depression

Beginning on New York’s Wall Street on October 29, 1929, which would come to be known as ‘Black Tuesday’, the Great Depression was the most…