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Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism was a movement initiated by a group of loosely affiliated artists that came together during the early 1940s, primarily in New York City.…

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Visual Arts Subject Overview

Modernism in the visual arts is a complex term and currently the subject of much academic debate. However, this project demanded that we set boundaries…

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Photography

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Hofmann, Hans (1880–1966)

Hans Hofmann was a German–American painter associated with Abstract Expressionism. Known as much for his paintings as for his role as a teacher, Hofmann moved…

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Fried, Michael (1939--)

Michael Fried is an American art critic, literary critic and art historian. Fried is most well-known for his art criticism, which contributed to the debates…

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Krauss, Rosalind Epstein (1941--)

Born and raised in Washington, D.C., Rosalind Krauss is an art historian, critic, and theorist whose writing is focused on modern and contemporary art. First…

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Truitt, Anne (1921–2004)

Anne Truitt is an American artist most closely identified with Minimalism. Truitt’s art consists of wooden boxes, planks, and columnar works industrially fabricated and painted…

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Modernist Film Criticism

Criticism is one of the fundamental concepts in Modernism and is defined by “the intensification, almost exacerbation, of [a] self-critical tendency” that began with Kant,…

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Black Mountain College

Between 1933 and 1957, Black Mountain College served as an unlikely crucible of modernism. Despite its isolated location near Asheville, North Carolina, at various times…

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Torres-García, Joaquín (1874–1949)

Father of Universalismo Constructivo and founder of the Asociación de Arte Constructivo and the Taller Torres García in Montevideo, Torres-García was the most important modern…

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Kaprow, Allan (1927–2006)

Allan Kaprow was an American artist whose oeuvre included painting, assemblage, and “environments.” He is best known as the originator of “happenings,” a term he…

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Frankenthaler, Helen (1928–2011)

Helen Frankenthaler was an American painter known for her large, abstract stain paintings. Associated with the second generation of Abstract Expressionists, Frankenthaler is thought to…

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Krasner, Lee (1908–1984)

Lee Krasner, born 27 October 1908 in Brooklyn, New York to immigrant parents from Russia, was an abstract expressionist painter whose status as the sole…

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Pollock, Jackson (1912–1956)

Jackson Pollock was one of the leading figures of Abstract Expressionism in mid-twentieth century America. He began his career working for the Federal Art Project,…

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de Kooning, Willem (1904–1997)

A leading post-World War II artist, Willem de Kooning painted in the vigorous style known as ‘‘gestural abstraction’’ or ‘‘action painting,’’ one of the two…

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Collage

Collage is an artistic technique first used in the 20th century in which paper, photographs, fabric, and other items are glued onto paper or canvas.…

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David Roland Smith (1906–1965)

David Smith was the pre-eminent sculptor of the New York School. Best known for his iron and steel constructions, Smith created cohesive sets of sculptures,…

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Tanguy, Yves (1900–1955)

Yves Tanguy was a French painter and one of the principal members of the Surrealist group. His main artistic output consisted of oil paintings, which…

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Peggy Guggenheim (1898–1979)

In any history of the migrations and transformations of modernism, Peggy Guggenheim (1898–1979) deserves a privileged place. She shares with Marcel Duchamp, a close friend…

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Group 1890

Group 1890 was a short-lived, but highly influential collective of Indian artists formed in 1962. It was composed of twelve members—Jeram Patel as secretary, Raghav…

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Motherwell, Robert (1915–1991)

Robert Motherwell was one of the central founding members of the Abstract Expressionist movement in the United States during the 1940s and 1950s and served…

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Caro, Anthony (1924–2013)

Anthony Caro played a pivotal role in the development of sculpture in the 20th century. He began his career as an assistant to Henry Moore,…

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Washington Color Painters

Washington Color Painters were a group of non-objective, post-painterly abstractionists working in Washington, DC, in the late 1960s, who believed that the formal property of…

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Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism in dance is part of the historicist modernist movement of the first third of the 20th century; it indicates an approach that redefines movement…

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Palucca, Gret (1902–1993)

Gret Palucca took a distinctive improvisational and pedagogical approach to German modern dance in a career spanning four different political systems in Germany. After studying…