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Film Subject Overview

The Film Section includes entries on a variety of modernist genres, periods, movements, directors, films, and critical modes aligned with modernist aims and intellectual attitudes.…

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Modernism in Latin America

In Latin American intellectual history, modernism is a term that can be usefully and accurately applied to at least two distinct intellectual movements: a clearly…

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Photography

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Architecture Subject Overview

Modernist architecture and design represented a utopian vision of how the built environment could be adapted to the needs to modern industrial society. Industrialization had…

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Constructivism

Prior to World War II, Constructivism attracted little interest from British artists apart from the few involved with Circle in 1937. Circle consisted of a…

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Modernism in Africa

Though they often escape critical scrutiny, concepts such as modernism, modernity, and modernization are at the heart of the concept of development, and thus omnipresent…

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Volpi, Alfredo (1896–1988)

One of Brazil’s greatest colorists, Alfredo Volpi (b. 1896, Lucca, Italy; d. 1988, São Paulo, Brazil), immigrated with his parents to Brazil in 1897 and…

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Nery, Ismael (1900–1934)

Ismael Nery (b. 1900, Belém do Pará, Brazil; d. 1934, Rio de Janeiro) was the mystical artist of Brazilian modernism. For him, art was a…

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Vidas Secas (Barren Lives)

One of the most important films of Brazil’s Cinema Nôvo movement, Vidas Secas was directed by Nelson Pereira dos Santos, and based on the 1938…

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Widmer, Ernst (1927--1990)

Ernst Widmer considered himself a Brazilian citizen, a Brazilian composer who was born and educated in Switzerland but who bloomed in the tropics. Actually, the…

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Nobre, Marlos (1939–)

Marlos Nobre is a Brazilian composer, pianist, and conductor. His music presents a unique characteristic that combines Brazilian features with advanced compositional techniques. His pluralistic…

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Klaxon (São Paulo, 1922–1923)

Klaxon (São Paulo, 1922–1923) was the first and most important of Brazil’s avant-garde artistic journals. It comprised a total of nine issues, published on a…

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Costa, Lúcio (1902–1998)

Brazilian architect Lúcio Marçal Ferreira Ribeiro Lima Costa was a founding father and one the main exponents of Brazilian modern architecture. After passing his childhood…

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São Paulo Biennial

The São Paulo Biennial was a daring enterprise modelled on the Venice Biennial that took place for the first time in 1951 in Brazil due…

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Cavalcanti, Alberto de Almeida (1897--1982)

Alberto Cavalcanti was a Brazilian-born film director and producer who made significant contributions to documentary and post-war cinema. In 1926 he made his first film,…

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Katunda, Eunice de Monte Lima (1915–1990)

Eunice de Monte Lima Katunda was a Brazilian pianist, composer, conductor, and educator. She was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1915 and died in…

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Grupo Santa Helena

The Santa Helena Group, made up mostly of wall painters, artisans, and amateur easel painters, had its origins in Brazil in the second half of…

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Maria Martins (1894–1973)

Maria Martins was a Brazilian sculptor and writer, a founding member of the Fundação do Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro, and a…

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Reidy, Affonso Eduardo (1909–1964)

The Brazilian architect and town planner Affonso Eduardo Reidy was born in Paris and studied architecture at the National School of Fine Arts of Rio…

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Pereira dos Santos, Nelson (1928--)

Nelson Pereira dos Santos (born in 1928 in São Paulo) is a Brazilian actor, screenwriter, film critic and theorist, producer, and director. He can be…

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Cardoso, Lindembergue (1939–1989)

Lindembergue Cardoso was one of the major representatives of the Composers’ Group of Bahia, a state of Brazil. He was born in Livramento de Nossa…

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Bértola, Eduardo (1939--1996)

Eduardo Bértola was born in Coronel Moldes, Córdoba, Argentina, 14 July 1939, and died in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, on 20 February 1996. Bértola was part…

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Clark, Lygia (1920–1988)

Lygia Clark was born in 1920 in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. She studied with Roberto Burle Marx before leaving for Europe to learn from Fernand Léger.…

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Di Cavalcanti, Emiliano (1897–1976)

The works of Emiliano Di Cavalcanti are at the center of modernism and national art in Brazil. Practically a self-taught artist, he attended the workshop…