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Modernism in Europe

We are living in a very singular moment of history. It is a moment of crisis, in the literal sense of that word. In every…

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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…

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Surrealism Overview

Soupault’s publication of Manifeste du Surréalism in 1924. Rising in the wake of the First World War, Surrealism revolted against a world that had become…

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Kolisch, Rudolf (1896–1978)

Rudolf Kolisch was an Austrian-born violinist, teacher, and conductor. As leader of the Kolisch Quartet he premiered many important chamber works by the Second Viennese…

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Bodenwieser, Gertrud (1890–1959)

Gertrud Bodenwieser was an Austrian-born dancer, teacher, and choreographer who made major contributions on two continents to the development of what she called New Dance,…

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EXPORT, VALIE (1940--)

Since the late 1960s, Austrian-born VALIE EXPORT has been an influential and controversial figure in feminist art history. Her artistic practice includes a variety of…

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Zweig, Stefan (1881–1942)

Stefan Zweig was a prominent Austrian-Jewish novelist, playwright and journalist throughout the 1920s and 1930s. Growing up in a Viennese upper-class environment of assimilated Jewry,…

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Mitterer, Wolfgang (1958--)

Wolfgang Mitterer (1958--) is an Austrian composer and organist noted for his work with live electronics and improvisation. Born on 6 June, 1958 in Lienz,…

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Weininger, Otto (1880–1903)

Otto Weininger was an Austrian philosopher and racial theorist. Born in Vienna to Jewish parents, he committed suicide five months after the publication of Sex…

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Wiesenthal, Grete (1885–1970)

The Austrian dancer and choreographer Grete Wiesenthal was a transitional figure at the crossroads of ballet and modern dance. Initially trained and employed as a…

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Wenger, Susanne (1915–2009)

Susanne Wenger was an Austrian artist and an instrumental figure in the history of Nigerian modernism. Born on July 4, 1915 in the city of…

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Hofmannsthal, Hugo von (1874–1929)

Hugo von Hofmannsthal was a leading Austrian writer of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His prolific works span a wide range of genres,…

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Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939)

Sigmund (Sigismund Schlomo) Freud was an Austrian psychiatrist and the founder of psychoanalysis, who systematized theories of the unconscious and psychosexual development. Freud published case…

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Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1889–1951)

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein was an Austrian philosopher whose work, largely on the philosophy of language, had far-reaching implications for modernist intellectual history and for…

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Werfel, Franz (1890–1945)

Franz Viktor Werfel was a Jewish-born Austrian novelist, poet, and playwright best known for his works of historical fiction, including The Forty Days of Musa…

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Bahr, Hermann (1863–1934)

Hermann Barr was an Austrian author, essayist, critic, editor, dramaturg, and director. His wide-ranging career spanned most of the fin de siècle’s major literary trends,…

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Hoffmann, Josef Franz Maria (1870–1956)

Josef Hoffmann was an Austrian architect and designer who proved instrumental in formulating the aesthetics and theory of modernist design. Among the most progressive architects…

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Kokoschka, Oskar (1886–1980)

The Austrian painter, graphic artist, writer, and playwright Oskar Kokoschka received distinction as a protégé while still studying at the Viennese School of Applied Arts.…

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Altenberg, Peter (1859–1919)

Born in Vienna on 9 March 1859, the Jewish-Austrian poet Peter Altenberg (birth name: Richard Engländer) became a literary sensation with his characteristically telegraphic writing…

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Young Vienna

Young Vienna was an informal, heterogeneous literary circle that existed in Vienna for little more than a decade, beginning in approximately 1890. Hermann Bahr and…

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Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove

The Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove is part of the story of Nigerian Modernism. Situated on the outskirts of the city of Osogbo in Southwest Nigeria,…

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Alienation

From the Christian doctrine of original sin, through G. W. F. Hegel’s conception of freedom, and the situated subject of existentialist thought in the wake…

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Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945)

Adolf Hitler was the dominant political figure in German Nazism. He became chairman of the Nazionalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei [the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or…

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Kafka, Franz (1883–1924)

Franz Kafka was born 3 July 1883 to a bourgeois family in Prague, the Czech capital that in the late nineteenth century belonged to the…

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Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich

The Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich (DTÖ) [Monuments of Music in Austria] is a series of critical editions of historical music, primarily by composers born…