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Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924)

Thomas Woodrow Wilson served two terms as the twenty-eighth President of the United States (1913–1921) and is remembered for leading the nation through World War…

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Lenin, Vladimir (1870–1924)

Vladimir Lenin (born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) was the most prominent figure in the translation of Marxist political economy and theories of proletarian revolution into successful…

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Solanas, Fernando (1936--)

Fernando “Pino” Solanas is an Argentinian director, screenwriter, author, politician, and public intellectual. Alongside Octavio Getino, Solanas is a founder of the Third Cinema political…

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Isrowuthakul, Santi (1945--)

Santi Isrowuthakul is an artist and activist who participated in the Artists’ Front of Thailand (AFT) (1974–1976). Born in Bangkok, Santi graduated with a master’s…

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Bachi, Marwan Kassab (1934--)

Born in Damascus, the Syrian painter Marwan Kassab Bachi, who often goes by only the name Marwan, began his career in Damascus before immigrating to…

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Engeki Kairyō Kai

Engeki Kairyō Kai [Theater Reform Society] was a quasi-government agency and a forerunner of the modernist movement in Japanese theater. From its early days, the…

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Bernstein, Eduard (1850–1932)

Eduard Bernstein was a prominent politician in the German Social Democratic Party (SPD), which in the late nineteenth century was the largest workers’ party in…

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The Dreyfus Affair (1894–1906)

The Dreyfus Affair was a French political controversy resulting from the unjust conviction and imprisonment of Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859–1935), a Jewish artillery officer, for…

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Maurras, Charles (1868–1952)

Charles Maurras was a controversial French poet and political theorist. Born in southern France to a royalist mother, Maurras became notorious during the Dreyfus Affair…

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Ortega y Gasset, José (1883–1955)

Spanish philosopher, historian, sociologist and politician José Ortega y Gasset contributed significantly to the intellectual landscape of the first half of the twentieth century. Ortega’s…

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Croce, Benedetto (1866–1952)

Benedetto Croce was an Italian philosopher of aesthetics and history, who cast a long shadow into the aesthetic and literary criticism of Modernism. Croce’s biography…

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Adams, Henry (1838–1918)

Although he was known as a historian during his lifetime, the work of Henry Adams—like that of Henry James—is often seen as an American precursor…

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Van der Post, Laurens (1906-1996)

Laurens van der Post was born on December 13, 1906 in the village of Phillipolis, in what was then the Orange River Colony. He was…

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Chang, Eileen (Zhang, Ailing) (1920–2005)

Eileen Chang was one of the most unique and distinguished voices in early twentieth century China. Focusing mostly on intricate family and romantic relations in…

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Ramírez Vázquez, Pedro (1919–2013)

Pedro Ramírez Vázquez is arguably the father of Mexican modern architecture. He studied at the School of Architecture of the National Autonomous University of Mexico,…

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties signed on June 28, 1919, in the Palace of Versailles, by Germany and the Allied…

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Mavo

Mavo was a coterie of vanguard artists, designers, and poets centered on Tokyo between July 1923 and late 1925. It sought to politicize art amid…

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (1918/1919–1933) is a term used to describe the German Reich (Deutsches Reich) after the end of World War I and after the…

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The Cantos

The Cantos is a series of 120 long poems by the American poet, essayist, and cultural critic Ezra Pound. Pound began work on them as…

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Nuevo Cine Cubano

Nuevo Cine Cubano refers to the postrevolutionary Cuban cinema that emerged in the years immediately following Fidel Castro’s rise to power. In March of 1959,…

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Calligraphy in Japan

Known as sho [書], shodō [書道], shosha [書写] or shūji [習字] in the twenty-first century, calligraphy holds an ambiguous and complicated status as art in…

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de Maistre, Roy (1894–1968)

Roy de Maistre was born in New South Wales and is recognized as an initiator of modern art practices in Australia. Aware of the new…

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Populism

The most salient first use of the term populism and its cognates can be found in late 19th-century Tsarist Russia. The Russian peasant Narodniki [populists]…

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de Zayas, Marius (1880–1961)

Marius de Zayas was a Mexican caricaturist, writer, collector, dealer, and curator who formed part of the New York avant-garde, and did much to promote…