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Symbolism Overview

Symbolism is a late-nineteenth-century literary movement centred mostly around the work of poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine, Philippe Villiers de L’Isle-Adam,…

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Social Realism

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Modernism in Australia and Oceania

(Previously published as 'The Experience of Aboriginality in the Creation of the Radically New' in Ross, S. (ed.) (2014) Modernist World, Abingdon: Routledge.)1

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Impressionism (Painting)

Impressionism is an artistic movement that flourished in France between 1860 and 1890. The term has been widely adopted around the world to describe artistic…

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Photography

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Modernism in Kannada Literature

Modernism, known in Kannada as ‘Navya’, emerged as a literary movement in the 1950s. This period saw writers deliberately moving away from the Romanticism of…

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Yeats, Jack Butler (1871-1957)

Jack B. Yeats was born into a remarkably creative Irish family; his father—John Butler Yeats—was a painter and his brother was the poet W.B. Yeats.…

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Organicism

Modernist organicism emphasizes the interrelationship between the natural world and society, and links sociocultural changes with nature, biology, and aesthetic forms in imagining the human…

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Maw, (John) Nicholas (1935–2009)

Nicholas Maw was one of the leading British composers of his generation. His music balances modernist sensibilities with musical and expressive impulses derived from Late…

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Atonality

Atonality refers to the complete absence of tonality in a musical composition. In music, it is often claimed that modernism stands in opposition to classicism…

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Izumi, Kyōka (1873–1939)

Izumi Kyōka was a novelist and shinpa playwright whose plays provided the heart of the shinpa repertory and demonstrated a new model for dramatic literature.…

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Levertin, Oscar (1862–1906)

Oscar Levertin was born at Gryt Manor in Norrköping, Sweden. He pursued an academic career at Uppsala University, where he received his doctorate in 1888.…

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Ostenso, Martha (1900–1963)

Martha Ostenso was a critically acclaimed and best-selling author best known for her first novel, Wild Geese (1925). Ostenso is significant to the development of…

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Peretz, Yitskhok Leybush (1835–1917)

Yitskhok Leybush Peretz, or I. L. Peretz (1835–1917), was a Yiddish and Hebrew writer, known for introducing modernist trends into Yiddish literature. Born in the…

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Saarinen, Gottlieb Eliel (1873–1950)

Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen, better known as Eliel Saarinen, was an architect who practiced in his native Finland for twenty-five years before beginning a new phase…

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Navya (Kannada)

Literally meaning ‘of the new’, Navya refers to the modernist phase in Kannada literature which began in the 1950s and ran its course by 1980.…

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Modernism in Bengali literature

Just as ‘modernity’, ‘modernism’ too has variegated histories. Years back—to be precise in 1961—Carl E. Schorske had zeroed in on Vienna to chart out a…

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Freud, Lucian (1922–2011)

Lucian Freud was a British painter and draughtsman whose work is characterized by his intense figure studies and muted palette. Born in Berlin on 8…

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The Lingnan School

The Lingnan School was a school of modern Chinese painting, originating in and around the southern city of Guangzhou (known in the West as Canton)…

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Lawrence, T. E. (1888–1935)

Thomas Edward Lawrence was an Oxford-trained medieval scholar, guerrilla leader, rebel, ascetic and spy. Lawrence was an inveterate self-fashioner in addition to being compellingly mythologized…

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Apocalypse Poets

The Apocalypse Poets (or Apocalyptics) were a network of British writers centred around the largely forgotten Apocalypse poetry movement. Apocalypse poetry, inspired by the notion…

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Der Blaue Reiter [The Blue Rider]

Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was an affiliated circle of artists of varying disciplines loosely organized by the visual artists Wassily Kandinsky and Franz…