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Cambodian Modernism

Cambodian modernity was chiefly shaped by the forces of colonization, decolonization, and the Cold War. These influences had singular consequences for art and culture in…

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Kurtág, György (1926--)

Unlike his friend György Ligeti, who emigrated from Hungary in 1956, György Kurtág remained until after the end of the Cold War in Budapest, where…

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Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism was a movement initiated by a group of loosely affiliated artists that came together during the early 1940s, primarily in New York City.…

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Modernism in Canada and The United States

In Canada and the United States modernism emerges from transnational engagements with global intellectual movements while also grappling with local intellectual, cultural, and political developments…

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Modernism in East Asia

The term ‘modernism’ is commonly used to describe some of the literary and cultural production of the early twentieth century in China, Japan, and Korea,…

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Bacon, Francis (1909–1992)

British painter Francis Bacon was one of the most important figures of international post-war modernism. During the 1940s and 1950s, he developed a characteristic painting…

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Hopps, Walter (1932–2005)

Walter Hopps was an American art dealer and curator of modern and contemporary art. Best known for organizing the first museum retrospective of Marcel Duchamp…

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Kline, Franz (1910–1962)

A prominent member of the Abstract Expressionists, Franz Kline was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. In high school he drew cartoons and, after attending Boston University,…

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Hansberry, Lorraine (1930–65)

Born in Chicago in 1930, Lorraine Hansberry made history when her play A Raisin in the Sun premièred on Broadway in 1959 as the first…

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Corm, Georges Daoud (1896–1971)

George Daoud Corm was a painter and francophone poet dedicated to Christian ethics and the classical tradition of European Humanism. He attended the Ecole Nationale…

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Picasso, Pablo (1881-1973)

Born in Malaga, it was in Barcelona that Picasso first identified himself as a subversive Modernist with a critical, contestatory and transgressive praxis exposing the…

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Verma, Nirmal (1929–2005)

Nirmal Verma was among the most prominent and distinguished Hindi novelists, essayists, and short story writers of the second half of the 20th century. Though…

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Le Brocquy, Louis (1916–2012)

Born in Dublin, Louis le Brocquy became one of the most significant figures in Irish twentieth-century art. After a major role in the organization of…

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Shahn, Ben (1898–1969)

Ben Shahn was an American painter, photographer, muralist, and graphic artist. His realist style, left-wing political activism, and socially conscious artwork exemplify social realism. After…

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Denby, Edwin (1903–1983)

Edwin Denby is best remembered as one of the preeminent critics of dance modernism, yet he was also an accomplished poet and an experienced dancer,…

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Free Jazz

Free Jazz emerged in the late 1950s out of the ongoing negotiation of the American jazz tradition. By the mid-twentieth century, this African-American musical tradition…

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Bandung School

The Bandung School refers to one of the streams of modern art in post-revolutionary Indonesia. It is associated primarily with the art school in what…

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Dix, Otto (1891–1969)

Otto Dix was a painter who emerged as a leading figure of the German avant-garde after World War I. His expressionist caprices, dadaist collages, and…

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Group 1890

Group 1890 was a short-lived, but highly influential collective of Indian artists formed in 1962. It was composed of twelve members—Jeram Patel as secretary, Raghav…

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The Antipodeans Group

The Antipodeans was the title of a group exhibition of figurative painters at the Victorian Artists’ Society in August 1959. Signatories to the exhibition catalogue…

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Populism

The most salient first use of the term populism and its cognates can be found in late 19th-century Tsarist Russia. The Russian peasant Narodniki [populists]…

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Internationalism

The term ‘Internationalism’ (internationalisme; Internationalismus) was coined in the mid-nineteenth century to denote those movements that called for involvement in events beyond national and imperial…

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Stalin, Joseph (1878–1953)

Joseph Stalin (Iusif Vassarionovich Dzhugashvili) was born in Gori, Russian Empire, which is part of present-day Georgia. He adopted the name ‘Stalin’ from the Russian…