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Hamdi Bey, Osman (1842–1910)

Osman Hamdi was the founding director of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts (later renamed the Istanbul Academy of Fine Arts, today part of the…

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Kazan, Elia (1909–2003)

Elia Kazan is arguably one of the most influential directors of mid-century mainstream America. Kazan is renowned for his introduction of the Moscow Art Theatre’s…

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Weston, Jessie (1850–1928)

Jessie Laidlay Weston was a British independent scholar and folklorist best known for her influential study From Ritual to Romance (1920), which sought to trace…

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Treitschke, Heinrich von (1834–1896)

Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke was a historian and political writer in the German Empire. Born in Dresden, Treitschke studied in Leipzig, Bonn, Tübingen, and Freiburg…

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Marburg School

The Marburg School is a term used to describe a group of Neo-Kantian philosophers at the University of Marburg in the second half of the…

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Blitz

The Blitz during World War II both curtailed and provoked creative expression. Key figures of the modernist movement re-evaluated the politics underlying their aesthetics at…

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Ezekiel, Nissim (1924–2004)

Nissim Ezekiel was a poet, playwright, director of plays, university professor, art critic, literary editor, and reviewer. Born to academic Marathi-speaking, Jewish parents of the…

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Liu, Na’o (1905–1940)

On 3 September 1940 Liu Na’ou (1905–40), the Taiwan-born, Japan-educated leader of the Shanghai Neo-Sensation School, was killed by an unknown gunman. He had just…

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Opperman, Diederik Johannes (1914–1985)

Dirk Opperman is known as a poet whose poetry is deeply concerned with Africa as a physical and symbolic space. As a dominant poetic figure…

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Muktibodh, Gajanan Madhav (1917–1964)

Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh was a prominent poet for both modernism and left-oriented progressive Hindi literature. His development of the imaginary, his generic innovation of the…

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Minimalism

Minimalism is an artistic style understood as a transition between high modernist abstraction and the turn into what would become known as postmodernism in art.…

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Gnessin, Uri Nissan (1879–1913)

Uri Nissan Gnessin was a Russian Jewish author, who is recognized as one of the founders of Modern Hebrew literature. He was born in Starodub,…

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Zero de Conduite (Zero for Conduct) (1933)

Directed by Jean Vigo, Zero for Conduct is a short film about young boarding school students rebelling against their teachers’ strictures. The film is an…

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Eight, The

Known in Czech as Osma and in German as Die Acht, the Eight was an artistic association at the forefront of the modern movement in…

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Sabogal, José (1888–1956)

Long associated with the Peruvian ‘indigenista’ movement, Sabogal was lauded by the Marxist José Carlos Mariátegui as a truly ‘Peruvian painter’. The definition of the…

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Weberhofer Quintana, Walter (1923–2002)

Walter Weberhofer was born to Oswald Weberhofer (forester) and Dolores Quintana Pilts Gurt in San Jeronimo de Tunari, in the province of Huancayo, department of…

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Fifth Moon Art Group (Wu yue hua hui)

Wu yue hua hui, also referred to in English as the Fifth Moon art group, was formed in May 1957 by a group of painters…

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Jones, Chuck (1912–2002)

Cartoon director Charles Martin ‘Chuck’ Jones studied drawing at Los Angeles’s Chouinard Art Institute. He briefly worked for Ub Iwerks and Walter Lantz before becoming…

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A Trip to the Moon (1902)

Le voyage dans la lune [A Trip to the Moon] is the best-known work of special effects and film pioneer Georges Méliès (1861–1938). It is…

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Robinson, Jacqueline (1922–2000)

A Franco-British dancer, teacher, choreographer and historian, Jacqueline Robinson is one of the key figures of modern dance in France. Born in London, educated in…

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Das, Kamala (1934–2009)

Kamala Das, one of the best-known bilingual writers from India in the twentieth century, consistently pushed the boundaries of what could be represented in literature…

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Plaatje, Solomon Tshekisho (1876–1932)

Born in 1876 in the rural Free State, Sol Plaatje is descended from the Barolong boo-Modiboa, royals who had been deposed in the 1500s. The…

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Science Fiction Films

Science fiction films are films where plot premises generally (1) depend on a scientific development or concept not actualised at the time of filming, or…

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Navodaya (New Birth) Period

Navodaya (New Birth) period, generally dated from 1900 to 1940s, refers to the beginning of modern Kannada literature, owing largely to the influence of Western…

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Abe Kōbō (1924–1993)

Abe Kōbō (1924–1993) was a pivotal shingeki playwright and director as Japanese contemporary theatre matured after World War II. Known also as a novelist, Abe…