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Williams, Raymond (1921–1988)

The critic, cultural historian and novelist Raymond Williams was an influential theorist of the emergence of literary and cultural modernism, and a key figure in…

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Bakhtin, Mikhail (1895–1975)

Mikhail Bakhtin was a Russian philosopher and thinker whose long career concerned aesthetics, ethics, literary and cultural theory, linguistics, and sociology. His earliest works, in…

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Modernism in Latin America

In Latin American intellectual history, modernism is a term that can be usefully and accurately applied to at least two distinct intellectual movements: a clearly…

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Modernism in East Asia

The term ‘modernism’ is commonly used to describe some of the literary and cultural production of the early twentieth century in China, Japan, and Korea,…

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Symbolism Overview

Symbolism is a late-nineteenth-century literary movement centred mostly around the work of poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine, Philippe Villiers de L’Isle-Adam,…

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Celtic Twilight, The (1893; revised 1902)

The Celtic Twilight is a collection of folk tales gathered by William Butler Yeats during his interviews with members of the rural working class in…

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Horton, Lester (1906–1953)

Lester Horton, regarded as one of the founders of American modern dance, worked outside the established center of New York City, establishing a permanent dance…

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Collins, Janet (1917–2003)

Magical on stage, elusive off stage, Janet Collins was an enigmatic and complex presence in twentieth-century dance. As the first full-time African American ballerina at…

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Regionalists, The

The visual artists known as the Regionalists rose to prominence in the United States during the 1930s. They advocated the use of realistic styles to…

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Scholem, Gershom (1897–1982)

Gershom Scholem was born in Berlin to Arthur and Betty Hirsch Scholem. Though raised in an assimilated Jewish and German nationalist household, Gerhard Scholem grew…

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Afrocubanismo in Music

Afrocubanismo was an esthetic trend in art music during the first half of the twentieth century focusing on African cultural features in Cuban society. The…

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Weaver, Harriet Shaw (1876–1961)

Harriet Shaw Weaver was a political activist and magazine editor best remembered for her literary and financial support of the modernist writer James Joyce (1882–1941).…

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The Group of Seven

The Group of Seven was a group of Canadian landscape painters working in the early 1900s that developed a distinct style of painting tied to…

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Athenaeum, The

The Athenaeum, “A Journal of Literature, Science, and the Arts,” was published weekly in London between 1828 and 1921. John Middleton Murray was appointed as…

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Contemporary Poetry and Prose

Contemporary Poetry and Prose was an avant-garde magazine edited by Roger Roughton that ran for ten issues between the spring of 1936 and the autumn…

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The New Age

The New Age was a weekly British literary magazine published from 1894 to 1938. Established by Frederick A. Atkins (1864–1940) in October 1894, the New…

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Madge, Charles (1912–1996)

Charles Madge is best known as a founder of Mass Observation, but he was also an accomplished poet, a journalist, and a social scientist. Madge…

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Altenberg, Peter (1859–1919)

Born in Vienna on 9 March 1859, the Jewish-Austrian poet Peter Altenberg (birth name: Richard Engländer) became a literary sensation with his characteristically telegraphic writing…

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First Statement

Based out of Montreal, First Statement was a modernist ‘little magazine’ published between August 1942 and July 1945 for a total of thirty-three issues. John…

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Monte Verità (1900–)

During the first two decades of the 20th century, Monte Verità, a hill on the west side of Ascona in southern Switzerland, was the site…

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Little Magazines

In the history of modernism, little magazines were often the first venues to publish unknown authors who are now considered the leading lights of twentieth-century…

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Mass Observation

Mass Observation was founded in 1937 by filmmaker Humphrey Jennings, poet Charles Madge, and ethnologist and explorer Tom Harrisson. It was originally conceived as a…

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H.D. (Hilda Doolittle) (1886–1961)

Perhaps best known as one of the founding imagists, H.D. was also a novelist, essayist and actor active throughout the entire modernist period. From her…

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Synge, John Millington (1871–1909)

J. M. Synge (pronounced “Sing”) is best known for his plays, first staged at Dublin’s Abbey Theatre, that vividly depicted rural life in Ireland. His…