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Lie, Jonas (1833–1908)

Jonas Lie was a leading Norwegian novelist during the Scandinavian Modern Breakthrough, a period of literary realism and naturalism spanning 1870 to 1890. His major…

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Drachmann, Holger Henrik Herholdt (1846–1908)

Holger Drachmann was a Danish writer and painter, active in the period of the Modern Breakthrough in Scandinavia (1870s–1890s). He was influenced by Georg Brandes…

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Leffler (Edgren), Anne Charlotte (1849–1892)

Anne Charlotte Leffler was one of the most acclaimed Swedish women writers of the modern breakthrough in late 19th-century Scandinavia. Joining the circle known as…

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Brandes, Georg Morris Cohen (1842–1927)

The Danish literary critic Georg Brandes is known as the force behind the modern breakthrough in Scandinavian literature in the late 19th century. Inspired by…

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Przybyszewski, Stanislaw (1868–1927)

Stanislaw Przybyszewski (1868–1927), highly controversial author of German tongue and Polish provenance, catalyst of German-Scandinavian modernity, and satanist, was widely read in Europe at the…

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Modern Breakthrough

The Modern Breakthrough is a category of literary history first used in 1883 by the Danish critic Georg Brandes. Brandes used it to group together…

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Strindberg, August (1849–1912)

August Strindberg is Sweden’s most important writer and one of the most influential dramatists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Along with Henrik…

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Rachilde (1860–1953)

Known mainly for her prose fiction of the Decadent period, the French writer Rachilde contributed to modernist theater in a number of ways. She was…

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Jensen, Johannes V. (1873–1950)

Winner of the 1944 Nobel Prize in literature, the novelist and poet Johannes V. Jensen was Denmark’s major 20th-century literary figure. Much celebrated for his…

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Henrik Johan Ibsen (1828–1906)

Henrik Ibsen is Norway’s most important writer and one of the most influential dramatists of the second half of the nineteenth century. His dramatic production…

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Hamsun, Knut (1859–1952)

Norwegian writer Knut Hamsun’s novels anticipated modernist psychological fiction and influenced a generation of major European figures. Winner of the 1920 Nobel Prize in literature,…

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Larsen, Nella (1891–1964)

Nella Larsen was an American novelist active in the 1920s and one of the central figures of ‘Manhattan modernism.’ She is best known for two…

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Bang, Herman (1857–1912)

Herman Joachim Bang was a Danish author, journalist, lecturer and theater director. He was born on the island of Als near the site of the…

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Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945)

Adolf Hitler was the dominant political figure in German Nazism. He became chairman of the Nazionalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei [the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or…

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Chissano, Alberto (1935–1994)

Alberto Mabungulane Chissano first tried his hand at wood sculpture in 1964, and in the first decade of his career had his work displayed in…

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CoBrA (1948–1951)

CoBrA was a European avant-garde movement active from 1948 to 1951, primarily known for a painterly style of coloristic disfiguration. The name is an acronym…

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Populism

The most salient first use of the term populism and its cognates can be found in late 19th-century Tsarist Russia. The Russian peasant Narodniki [populists]…

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Coleman, Ornette (1930--)

Ornette Coleman is an American jazz alto saxophonist and composer. Coleman is considered one of the founders of the avant-garde movement in jazz, which he…

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Modern Folk Dance

Modern folk dance is a turn of the twentieth-century revivalist practice based upon a participatory dance form originating within village-based ethnic communities of northern Europe.…

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World of Art (МИР ИССКУСТВА)

Born in St. Petersburg on the threshold of the 20th century, the World of Art group of artists, writers, and musicians was a primary representative…

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Bergman, Ernst Ingmar (July 14, 1918–July 30, 2007)

Perhaps the exemplification of the European art-film director throughout the late 1950s and the 1960s, Ingmar Bergman developed what would become an almost instantly recognizable…