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Jensen, Johannes V. (1873–1950)

Winner of the 1944 Nobel Prize in literature, the novelist and poet Johannes V. Jensen was Denmark’s major 20th-century literary figure. Much celebrated for his…

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Kristensen, (Aage) Tom (1893–1974)

Tom Kristensen was the most influential exponent of Expressionism in 1920s Denmark. During this period he wrote both poetry and novels that gave voice to…

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Sørensen, Villy (1929–2001)

Villy Sørensen was a prominent intellectual figure of 20th-century Denmark. His work spanned social commentary, philosophy, and literature. He was a sophisticated literary critic, author…

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Rifbjerg, Klaus (1931–2015)

Since the late 1950s, Klaus Rifbjerg has been a dominant figure of literary modernism in Denmark. His productivity is legendary (his bibliography includes more than…

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Claussen, Sophus (1865–1931)

Sophus Claussen is considered one of the foremost Danish poets of the period spanning the 19th and 20th centuries. As a regular contributor to the…

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Højholt, Per (1928–2004)

Per Højholt was one of the most productive and influential Danish writers of the 20th century. He made his debut in 1948 at the age…

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Rachilde (1860–1953)

Known mainly for her prose fiction of the Decadent period, the French writer Rachilde contributed to modernist theater in a number of ways. She was…

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Mawson, Thomas Hayton (1861–1933)

The self-trained English landscape architect and town planner Thomas Hayton Mawson became one of the most successful designers of the first decades of the twentieth…

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Tucholsky, Dr Kurt (1890–1935)

Kurt Tucholsky was an important and widely-read author, poet, satirist, and editor of small literary forms during the Weimar Republic. He was a prolific writer…

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Blixen, Karen (1885–1962)

Karen Blixen was a singular figure in 20th century Danish literary life. In the 1930s, when Blixen started writing, Danish literature was dominated by social…

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Jader, Khalid al- (1922–1988)

Dr Khalid al-Jader was born in Baghdad, Iraq. He had a distinguished career as an Iraqi artist, scholar, and administrator throughout the mid-20th century. He…

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Bang, Herman (1857–1912)

Herman Joachim Bang was a Danish author, journalist, lecturer and theater director. He was born on the island of Als near the site of the…

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Brandes, Georg Morris Cohen (1842–1927)

The Danish literary critic Georg Brandes is known as the force behind the modern breakthrough in Scandinavian literature in the late 19th century. Inspired by…

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Modern Breakthrough

The Modern Breakthrough is a category of literary history first used in 1883 by the Danish critic Georg Brandes. Brandes used it to group together…

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Dreyer, Carl Theodor (1889–1968)

Carl Theodor Dreyer was a journalist, theatre critic, scriptwriter and film director born and brought up in Copenhagen. It is difficult to speak of a…

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Cecil Edwin Frans Skotnes (1926–2009)

Cecil Skotnes (b. 1926, East London, Eastern Cape, South Africa; d. 2009, Cape Town, South Africa) was a print-maker, woodcarver, and educator who played a…

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Chitt Chongmankhong (1922–2009)

Chitt Chongmankhong was one of Thailand’s foremost artistic photographers, and is today referred to as “the father of Thai photography” (Chongmankhong 1998: 23). He is…

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Münter, Gabriele (1877–1962)

Gabriele Münter was a key figure in German Expressionism. Born in Berlin, she moved to Munich in 1901 where she became an active participant in…

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CoBrA (1948–1951)

CoBrA was a European avant-garde movement active from 1948 to 1951, primarily known for a painterly style of coloristic disfiguration. The name is an acronym…

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Delsarte, François (1811–1871)

A performer and teacher of voice and movement, François Delsarte developed a theory of expression that influenced modern dance, actor training, poetic recitation, silent film,…

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Pick, Frank (1878–1941)

Frank Pick was a design patron and early champion of modernism in Britain. As the head of London Transport, he transformed the company into the…

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Gubaidulina, Sofia Asgatovna (1931--)

Sofia Gubaidulina was born in Chistopol in the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, of mixed Russian and Tatar parentage. After graduating from Kazan Conservatoire in…

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Feminism and Suffragism

Originating from the French word féminisme, feminism’s first appearance in 1837 is attributed to the social theorist Charles Fourier (1772–1837). Denoting a principle that argues…

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Börlin, Jean (1893–1930)

As principal choreographer and dancer for the 1920s avant-garde troupe Les Ballets Suédois (Swedish Ballet), Jean Börlin contributed greatly to the modernist cauldron that was…