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Mussolini, Benito (1883–1945)

Known as Il Duce (the Leader), the son of a Marxist blacksmith, Benito Mussolini was the ruler of Fascist Italy (1922–43). A master of populist…

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Maslow, Sophie (1911–2006)

Sophie Maslow, a prolific choreographer and significant contributor to American modern dance, was often characterized as a populist or people’s choreographer because she was inspired…

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Populism

The most salient first use of the term populism and its cognates can be found in late 19th-century Tsarist Russia. The Russian peasant Narodniki [populists]…

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Progressivism

Progressivism was a political and socioeconomic movement central to American national politics from the Gilded Age (1890s) to the end of the Roaring Twenties. At…

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Vivas, Fruto (1928--)

A successful architect born in the Venezuelan Andes, Fruto Vivas received his training in Caracas during a period of booming modernization mid-20th-century. His approach to…

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Allen, Barney (1902–1967)

Barney Allen was the pseudonym of Solomon Allen, a Jewish-Canadian novelist from Toronto, Ontario. His writing combined influences from James Joyce and Sigmund Freud. His…

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Regionalists, The

The visual artists known as the Regionalists rose to prominence in the United States during the 1930s. They advocated the use of realistic styles to…

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Lindsay, Vachel (1879–1931)

Vachel Lindsay was an American poet whose concern for developing a new, popular American language led him to become one of the first people to…

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Googie Architecture

Googie architecture was a vernacular style of architecture that emerged in post-Second World War America, primarily in Southern California. Replacing Streamline Moderne as the style…

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Dehn, Mura (1903–1987)

Mura Dehn was a dancer, choreographer, writer and filmmaker whose work focussed on African-American vernacular jazz dance. Her greatest contribution to Modernism and jazz discourses…

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Gramsci, Antonio (1891–1937)

Antonio Gramsci is among the most influential political and cultural theorists of the twentieth century and one of the most important Marxists. Born in Sardinia,…

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Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945)

Adolf Hitler was the dominant political figure in German Nazism. He became chairman of the Nazionalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei [the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or…

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Kollwitz, Käthe (1867–1945)

Käthe Kollwitz (née Schmidt) was born in Königsberg, East Prussia in 1867, the fifth child of Karl and Katharina Schmidt. In 1884 she entered the…

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Alvarez Bravo, Lola (1903–1993)

Born to a wealthy family in Jalisco, Mexico, Dolores Martínez de Anda (always known as Lola) was brought up in luxury during her infancy and…

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Tati, Jacques (1907–1982)

Jacques Tati (born Jacques Tatischeff) was a French director and actor. Despite a very small output—only six feature films and three shorts—he is considered one…

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Garner, Hugh (1913–1979)

Hugh Garner was a British-Canadian writer, journalist, and editor. His fictional writings reflect on the experiences of marginalized individuals, echoing his own early experiences of…

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Robbins, Jerome (1918–1998)

Jerome Robbins was one of the master choreographers of the twentieth century who transformed musical theater and ballet. Beginning with Fancy Free (1944), Robbins left…

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Modernism and Latin American Classical Music

The idea of musical modernism in the Latin American classical music world was a particular aesthetically-oriented instance of a broader discourse that has been described…

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Politics and Cinema

The relationship between politics and the cinema is probably one of the most vexatious questions to have occupied the academic discipline of film studies, and…

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Art Cinema

Although the term circulates widely in popular and academic discourse, ‘art cinema’ is a notoriously difficult concept to define, conjuring a wide range of associations…

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Cardew, Cornelius (1936–1981)

Cornelius Cardew was a leading figure in British experimental music in the 1960s and a committed political activist in the 1970s. His earlier music, particularly…

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