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Overview

Intellectual Currents

This section focusses on the historical, sociological, philosophical, economic, political, and scientific context of modernism. Entries cover individuals, coteries, movements, and events. The primary criterion…

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Strike (Sergei Eisenstein, 1925)

The first feature film of legendary Soviet director Sergei Eisenstein, Strike, is an anatomy of the germination of collective action, its surveillance within modern networks…

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Verma, Nirmal (1929–2005)

Nirmal Verma was among the most prominent and distinguished Hindi novelists, essayists, and short story writers of the second half of the 20th century. Though…

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Varma, Raja Ravi (1848–1906)

Raja Ravi Varma transformed the way Indian gods and goddesses were pictured, and he did so with oil painting—a new import in 19th-century India. By…

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Naita, Maria (1968--)

Known for her prolific and consistent career, Maria Naita has distinguished herself as not only a major player in Uganda’s sculpture scene, but also as…

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Duchanee, Thawan (1939–2014)

Thawan Duchanee, awarded National Artist in 2001 by the Office of the National Culture Commission of Thailand, is one of the best-known artists in Thailand,…

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Nortje, Arthur Kenneth (1942–1970)

From the University of the Western Cape, Arthur Nortje left for Jesus College, Oxford, to which he returned after teaching for two years in Canada.…

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O’Keeffe, Georgia (1887–1986)

Georgia O’Keeffe was one of the most important American and women artists of the twentieth century and a leading early abstract painter. She is most…

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Marc, Franz (1880–1916)

Franz Marc was born in Munich, Germany in 1880 and died in the battle of Verdun in 1916, one of many of the Great War’s…

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Yvor Winters (1900–1968)

Arthur Yvor Winters was an iconoclast who valued tradition; a poetic experimentalist who became increasingly committed to inherited poetic forms; a critic committed to rationality…

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Bacon, Francis (1909–1992)

British painter Francis Bacon was one of the most important figures of international post-war modernism. During the 1940s and 1950s, he developed a characteristic painting…

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Freud, Lucian (1922–2011)

Lucian Freud was a British painter and draughtsman whose work is characterized by his intense figure studies and muted palette. Born in Berlin on 8…

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Lachenmann, Helmut (Friedrich) (1935--)

One of the most influential composers to emerge from Germany following the post-war avant-garde movement, Helmut Lachenmann has remained committed to the legacy of integral…

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Nnaggenda, Francis (1936--)

From an early age, Francis Nnaggenda knew he wanted to be an artist. Born in 1936, Nnaggenda was raised in rural Uganda where he became…

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Nery, Ismael (1900–1934)

Ismael Nery (b. 1900, Belém do Pará, Brazil; d. 1934, Rio de Janeiro) was the mystical artist of Brazilian modernism. For him, art was a…

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Åkesson, Birgit Anna Ida (1908–2001)

Birgit Åkesson (b. March 24, 1908, Malmö, Sweden; d. March 24, 2001, Stockholm, Sweden) is considered one of Sweden’s foremost modern choreographers. In the late…

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Hore, Somnath (1921–2006)

Born at the beginning of the 1920s, and acquiring academic training during the mid 1940s, Somnath Hore represents a generation of artists in Bengal, India,…

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Cambridge Ritualists, The

The Cambridge Ritualists, also known as the Cambridge Group of Classical Anthropologists, were a closely knit group of four classicists—Jane Ellen Harrison (1850–1928), Francis M.…

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De Casseres, Benjamin (1873–1945)

Benjamin De Casseres was an American poet, literary and cultural critic, and satirist whose career spanned four decades and two countries. Born in Philadelphia on…

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Holm, Hanya (1893–1992)

Hanya Holm, dancer, choreographer, and teacher, is widely considered one of the pioneers of American modern dance, and was one of the most influential figures…

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Jarvis, Judy (1942–1986)

Judy Jarvis, a choreographer, dancer, and teacher, was a significant figure within the Canadian modern dance community. Following early dance studies in Toronto, she spent…

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Mendes, Gilberto (1922–2016)

Gilberto Ambrósio Garcia Mendes was born in Santos (São Paulo state), on 13 October 1922. Despite his unorthodox musical career — he did not start…

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Horton, Lester (1906–1953)

Lester Horton, regarded as one of the founders of American modern dance, worked outside the established center of New York City, establishing a permanent dance…