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Kafka, Franz (1883–1924)

Franz Kafka was born 3 July 1883 to a bourgeois family in Prague, the Czech capital that in the late nineteenth century belonged to the…

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Modernism in Europe

We are living in a very singular moment of history. It is a moment of crisis, in the literal sense of that word. In every…

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Sørensen, Villy (1929–2001)

Villy Sørensen was a prominent intellectual figure of 20th-century Denmark. His work spanned social commentary, philosophy, and literature. He was a sophisticated literary critic, author…

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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…

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Flaubert, Gustave (1821–1880)

A primary innovator of the modern novel, French writer Gustave Flaubert was one of the most influential literary artists of the nineteenth century. Primarily associated…

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Klossowski, Pierre (1905–2001)

French philosopher, writer, artist and translator Pierre Klossowski was born in Paris and raised in Switzerland, Germany and France. His education was influenced by Rainer…

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Brod, Max (1884–1968)

Max Brod was one of the most influential figures of the modernist literary scene in Prague, as well as its most important chronicler and promoter.…

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Pinthus, Kurt (1886–1975)

Kurt Pinthus—pen name Paulus Potter—was a German-Jewish publicist, editor, and critic, who is considered as one of the most important mediators of literary expressionism in…

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Weininger, Otto (1880–1903)

Otto Weininger was an Austrian philosopher and racial theorist. Born in Vienna to Jewish parents, he committed suicide five months after the publication of Sex…

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Kurtág, György (1926--)

Unlike his friend György Ligeti, who emigrated from Hungary in 1956, György Kurtág remained until after the end of the Cold War in Budapest, where…

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Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund (1903–69)

Born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund to an Italian Catholic mother and an assimilated Jewish father, Adorno would take his mother’s vaguely aristocratic last name. Philosopher, aesthetician,…

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Modernism in Kannada Literature

Modernism, known in Kannada as ‘Navya’, emerged as a literary movement in the 1950s. This period saw writers deliberately moving away from the Romanticism of…

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Rilke, Rainer Maria (1875–1926)

Rilke was a preeminent German-speaking poet of the beginning of the twentieth century. His early poetical works were still conventional and bathed in neoromantic sentimentality.…

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Borges, Jorge Luis (1899–1986)

Jorge Luis Borges is among the writers who have brought international fame to Latin American Literature. A fabulist, poet, essayist and translator, Borges shaped modern…

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Werfel, Franz (1890–1945)

Franz Viktor Werfel was a Jewish-born Austrian novelist, poet, and playwright best known for his works of historical fiction, including The Forty Days of Musa…

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Scottish Modernism

Scotland participated in the European visual art modernism of the early 20th century, when painters such as J. D. Fergusson and the Scottish Colourists set…

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Sokolow, Anna (1910–2000)

In her seventy-year career, Anna Sokolow contributed to dance fields in the United States, Mexico, and Israel. A child of Russian Jewish immigrants, Sokolow rose…

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Little Magazines

In the history of modernism, little magazines were often the first venues to publish unknown authors who are now considered the leading lights of twentieth-century…

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Werfel, Franz (1890–1945) [REVISED AND EXPANDED]

Franz Viktor Werfel was a Jewish-born Austrian novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, and translator best known in the Anglophone world for his works of historical fiction,…

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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…