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Cravan, Arthur (1887–1918)

Born Fabian Avernius Lloyd in Lausanne, Switzerland to expatriate English parents, Arthur Cravan was a self-styled ‘poet-pugilist,’ nephew of Oscar Wilde, and husband of British…

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Decadence

Decadence was a word used to refer, often disparagingly, to late-19th-century European writers and artists whose credo of ‘‘art for art’s sake’’ (Dictionary of Art…

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Symbolism Overview

Symbolism is a late-nineteenth-century literary movement centred mostly around the work of poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine, Philippe Villiers de L’Isle-Adam,…

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Aestheticism

Aestheticism refers to a late-Victorian tendency to argue that art is its own justification and should therefore be judged by purely aesthetic criteria. Closely related…

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Yellow Book, The

The Yellow Book was a London-based literary quarterly, published from 1894 to 1897 by Elkin Matthews and John Lane, which served to promote the work…

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Pater, Walter (1839–1894)

Walter Pater was a man of letters and art critic associated with the Art for Art’s Sake movement. Pater was a notably quiet Oxford don.…

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Geijutsu-za

The first iteration of the Geijutsu-za (Art Theater) was founded in 1913 by the actors Shimamura Hōgetsu (1871–1918) and Matsui Sumako (1886–1919) after they were…

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Crowley, Aleister (1875–1947)

Aleister Crowley was an occultist, writer, and mystic who founded the spiritual philosophy of Thelema. Crowley’s work combines European, South Asian, and Chinese esoteric teachings.…

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Archer, William (1856–1924)

Born in Edinburgh, William Archer served as a London theater critic from 1881 to 1920. He retired from weekly reviewing when his melodrama The Green…

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Matsui, Sumako (1886–1919)

Matsui Sumako was the first superstar shingeki actress in Japan’s modernist theater movement.

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Symonds, John Addington (1840–1893)

John Addington Symonds was an English historian, biographer and poet best known for his writings on sexuality. Though Symonds’s father was a well-known physician and…

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Reinhardt, Max (1873–1943)

Born Max Goldmann to Jewish parents in Baden, Austria and nicknamed “the Magician” by the press, Max Reinhardt was pivotal in establishing theater directing as…

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Literary Agents

Despite early resistance from publishers such as William Heinemann, the expansion of British and American literary markets between 1880 and World War I rendered the…

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Kawakami, Sadayakko (1871–1946)

Sadayakko (also sometimes transliterated Sada Yakko or Sada Yacco) was Japan’s first modern actress, a pioneer of Western drama in Japan and one of the…

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Winfield, Hemsley (1907–1934)

An early initiator of Black modern dance, Hemsley Winfield first gained recognition as an actor and director of the New Negro Art Theater in New…

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Bharati, Dharamvir (1926–1997)

Dharamvir Bharati was one of the most versatile literary figures of modern Hindi Literature in independent India. Born on 25 December, 1926 in a Kayastha…

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Beardsley, Aubrey Vincent (1872–1898)

Aubrey Beardsley was an English illustrator of the late Victorian period. His fluid, sinuous illustrations were influenced by Japanese prints and by the curvilinear Art…

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Brenner, Yosef Hayim (1881–1921)

Yosef Hayim Brenner was born in 1881 in Novi Mlini, in the Russian Empire (now Ukraine). Like many Hebrew and Yiddish writers of his generation,…

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Fin de siècle

Referring to the end of the 19th century, Fin de siècle not only represents a specific historical moment but also a part of the sensibility…

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Art Nouveau

From the 1880s until the mid-1910s, Art Nouveau was the dominant style in art, architecture, and design in Europe, with innovative and thoroughly modern production…

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Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)

Friedrich Nietzsche, the son of a Lutheran minister, was a German philologist, philosopher, and iconoclast. He is best known for his controversial but powerful reevaluation…

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Dallapiccola, Luigi (1904–1975)

Luigi Dallapiccola was the leading Italian composer of the middle half of the twentieth century, contributing much to the development of musical modernism in Italy…