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Strindberg, August (1849–1912)

August Strindberg is Sweden’s most important writer and one of the most influential dramatists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Along with Henrik…

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Overview

Drama, Theater and Performance Subject Overview

This brief preamble will introduce the kinds of material the reader can expect to find in the entries treating drama, theater, and performance, and suggest…

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Modern Breakthrough

The Modern Breakthrough is a category of literary history first used in 1883 by the Danish critic Georg Brandes. Brandes used it to group together…

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Rachilde (1860–1953)

Known mainly for her prose fiction of the Decadent period, the French writer Rachilde contributed to modernist theater in a number of ways. She was…

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Reinhardt, Max (1873–1943)

Born Max Goldmann to Jewish parents in Baden, Austria and nicknamed “the Magician” by the press, Max Reinhardt was pivotal in establishing theater directing as…

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Henrik Johan Ibsen (1828–1906)

Henrik Ibsen is Norway’s most important writer and one of the most influential dramatists of the second half of the nineteenth century. His dramatic production…

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Brandes, Georg Morris Cohen (1842–1927)

The Danish literary critic Georg Brandes is known as the force behind the modern breakthrough in Scandinavian literature in the late 19th century. Inspired by…

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Weininger, Otto (1880–1903)

Otto Weininger was an Austrian philosopher and racial theorist. Born in Vienna to Jewish parents, he committed suicide five months after the publication of Sex…

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Independent Theatre Movement

The Independent Theatre Movement in Europe was a primary shaping influence on modern dramatic literature and theatrical modernism. These small independent theaters were committed to…

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Levertin, Oscar (1862–1906)

Oscar Levertin was born at Gryt Manor in Norrköping, Sweden. He pursued an academic career at Uppsala University, where he received his doctorate in 1888.…

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Munch, Edvard (1863–1944)

Edvard Munch was a Norwegian painter, printmaker and sculptor, who experimented with photography and film. He is one of the main forerunners of Expressionism, and…

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O’Neill, Eugene (1888–1953)

Eugene O’Neill is regarded as the quintessential modernist among American playwrights, and many of his works show an affinity with the themes and methods of…

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Teatro del pueblo

Teatro del Pueblo (The People’s Theater) was the first ‘independent’ theater in Argentina and launched the teatro independiente movement in Buenos Aires. Founded on November…

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Modernist Theater in Catalonia

Modernist theater in Catalonia emerged out of the interplay between thematic and artistic innovation and the representation of sociopolitical issues such as class and cultural…

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Literary Modernism in Finland

Literary modernism in Finland falls into a set of distinctive sub-movements, defined, in part, by the two languages in which Finnish literature is expressed: Finnish…