Search Results 1 - 23 of 23


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Sartre, Jean-Paul (1905–1980)

Jean-Paul Sartre was a French philosopher, left-wing political activist, playwright, and novelist. One of the leading French public intellectuals of the twentieth century, he was…

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Existentialism

Existentialism is the term given to an interdisciplinary school of thought that focuses on the lived experience of human beings. Existentialism was especially popular in…

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Hare, David (1917–1992)

David Hare was an American sculptor and critic whose work was inspired by the imagination and the subconscious. During the early 1940s, when he began…

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Flaubert, Gustave (1821–1880)

A primary innovator of the modern novel, French writer Gustave Flaubert was one of the most influential literary artists of the nineteenth century. Primarily associated…

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Genet, Jean (1910-1986)

Jean Genet was a poet, novelist, autobiographer and playwright within the Theatre of the Absurd movement. He wrote licentiously on homosexuals and outlaws, and explosively…

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Heidegger, Martin (1889–1976)

Born in Meßkirch, Germany, Martin Heidegger is renowned as a leading 20th-century philosopher of existentialism and phenomenology with far-reaching influence in the Western world. Heidegger…

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Modernism in the Middle East and Arab World

Exploring modernity and its intellectual trends in the Middle East is a very fitting endeavour, as ‘Middle East’ itself is a ‘modern’ term which has…

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Benda, Julien (1867–1956)

Julien Benda was a French writer, literary critic, and political thinker. An atypical figure in French literary history, Benda opposed most of the intellectual trends…

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Kojève, Alexandre (1902–1968)

Alexandre Kojève was a French philosopher of Russian birth, most remembered for his introduction of Hegel into French and Continental thought. Kojève’s work on Hegel…

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Nihilism

Most broadly, Nihilism is the rejection of meaningful moral or religious values. Nihilism is often associated with moral Relativism, extreme Skepticism, and Pessimism. First used…

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Giacometti, Giovanni Alberto (1901–1966)

Alberto Giacometti was a titan of twentieth-century art. His rich oeuvre of sculpture, painting and drawing ranks alongside pioneering artists such as Pablo Picasso, Henri…

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Lynching Drama

Lynching dramas reflect the brutal history of racial violence in which black individuals, primarily black men, were murdered by a white mob with no repercussions…

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Elytis, Odysseus (1911–1996)

“For me the Aegean is not merely a part of nature, but rather a kind of signature,” Odysseus Elytis suggested in a 1972 interview with…

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Shi’r

The journal, Shi’r (Poetry 1957–70) was established in Beirut by Yūsuf al-Khāl and the poet theorist Adunis to save poetry from politics. It emerged as…

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Togni, Camillo (1922–1993)

Camillo Togni was an Italian composer, aesthetician and pianist. Launching a career in the midst of the chaos of World War II, he played his…

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Fondane, Benjamin (1898–1944)

A primarily francophone Jewish poet and writer of Romanian origin, Fondane became known as a critic, poet and dramaturge in Romania before leaving Bucharest for…

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Leiris, Michel (1901–1990)

Eluding easy categorization, French poet, essayist and autobiographer Julien Michel Leiris was affiliated with literary Surrealism, Existentialism and ethnography. Involved with the surrealist movement through…

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Modernism in Kannada Literature

Modernism, known in Kannada as ‘Navya’, emerged as a literary movement in the 1950s. This period saw writers deliberately moving away from the Romanticism of…

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Anti-Semitism including the Holocaust

Anti-Semitism, a term coined in Europe at the end of the 19th century, is the hatred of Jews and Jewishness, the latter being perceived in…

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Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)

Friedrich Nietzsche, the son of a Lutheran minister, was a German philologist, philosopher, and iconoclast. He is best known for his controversial but powerful reevaluation…

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Nouveau Roman

The ‘Nouveau Roman’ or ‘New Novel’ is used to refer to a literary and critical movement in France during the 1950s and early 1960s. Later,…

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Céline, Louis-Ferdinand (1894–1964)

Louis-Ferdinand Céline was one of the most controversial and innovative authors of the twentieth century. Known for his use of insults, slang, and ellipses in…

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Nono, Luigi (1924–90)

Luigi Nono stands out as one of the most uncompromising modernist composers of the Italian avant-garde. Together with Karlheinz Stockhausen and Pierre Boulez, Nono was…