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Russian Modernism (1890–1934)

Russian modernism arose as a rejection of positivism and the realism of the major nineteenth-century Russian novelists such as Lev Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and Ivan…

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Apollo (1909–1917)

Apollo (Apollon, 1909–1917) was the third and last major Russian modernist art periodical before the revolution of 1917. Edited by the art critic and art…

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Olesha, Yuri (1899–1960)

Yuri Olesha was a major figure in Soviet Russian modernism, known for his meticulous craftsmanship, original imagery, and unexpected perspective. He enjoyed great success as…

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Overview

Symbolism Overview

Symbolism is a late-nineteenth-century literary movement centred mostly around the work of poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine, Philippe Villiers de L’Isle-Adam,…

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Social Realism

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Vesy

A Russian monthly journal devoted to criticism, literature, and art, appearing from January 1904 to December 1909. Vesy was a leading organ of Russian Symbolism,…

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Zolotoe runo [The Golden Fleece] (1906–1909)

The successor to the World of Art, the Symbolist art-literary journal Zolotoeruno [The Golden Fleece] (1906–1909) was published in Moscow by Nikolai Riabushinsky (1877–1951), the…

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The Organic School

The Organic School of the Russian avant-garde was a group of artists primarily based in St Petersburg. Less concerned with the urban, ideological, and utilitarian aspects…

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Zenkevich, Mikhail Aleksandrovich (1886–1973)

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Zenkevich was a Russian poet and author, one of the founders of Tsekh poetov [The Guild of Poets] and the Acmeist movement—a representative…

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Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova (1881–1962)

One of the most talented and prolific of 20th-century Russian artists, Natalia Goncharova was not only a leading member of the Russian avant-garde in the…

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Neo-Primitivism

Neo-Primitivism is a style-label employed by the Muscovite avant-garde in the early twentieth century to describe forms of visual art and poetry that were tendentiously…

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Ballets Russes

Founded by the Russian impressario Sergei Diaghilev in 1909, the Ballets Russes played a role of fundamental importance in the development of early twentieth-century modernism.…

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Khlebnikov, Velimir (1885–1922)

One of the founders of Russian Futurism, Khlebnikov can be counted as one of the movement’s most prominent and seminal representatives. Widely acclaimed for his…

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Diaghilev, Serge (1872–1929)

Impresario, critic, curator, and founder-director of the Ballets Russes (1909–1929), Serge Diaghilev was a towering figure and pioneer of early 20th-century modernism. Through his various…