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Modernism in Europe

We are living in a very singular moment of history. It is a moment of crisis, in the literal sense of that word. In every…

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Domingo Santa Cruz, Wilson (1899–1987)

Wilson Domingo Santa Cruz was a lawyer, composer, and academic. His career was built upon several achievements in formative, artistic, and administrative fields, making him…

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Gandhi, M. K. (1869–1948)

Mohandas Karamchand (sometimes called Mahatma, or ‘great soul’) Gandhi was an Indian lawyer, a champion of Indian independence from Great Britain, and an advocate and…

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Kluge, Alexander (1932--)

Alexander Kluge is a German author, film director, and television producer who has also worked as a lawyer, teacher, and political lobbyist. A founding figure of…

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Indian National Congress

The Indian National Congress is one of the largest and oldest democratic political organizations in the world, and one of two major parties in Indian…

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Delaunay, Sonia (1885–1979)

Sonia Delaunay, lately often referred to as Delaunay-Terk, was a painter and textile designer who, together with her husband Robert Delaunay, was the precursor of…

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Little Theater Movement

The Little Theater Movement comprised a web of amateur theater activities undertaken across much of the United States between 1912 and 1925. Little Theater opposed…

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Asturias, Miguel Ángel (1899–1974)

Miguel Ángel Asturias (1899–1974), the recipient of the 1967 Nobel Prize in Literature, is one of the most decorated Guatemalan writers in history. He was…

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Stevens, Wallace (1879–1955)

Wallace Stevens is recognized as one of America’s greatest modernist poets, yet he was not widely celebrated for his poetry until the last years of…

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Van der Post, Laurens (1906-1996)

Laurens van der Post was born on December 13, 1906 in the village of Phillipolis, in what was then the Orange River Colony. He was…

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Said, Mahmoud (1897–1964)

Said’s vibrant canvases portray nude Egyptian women, stylized Lebanese landscapes, and glamorous Alexandrian aristocrats. Born in 1897 in Alexandria to a prominent, landowning family, his…

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Crawley, Alan (1887–1975)

Alan Crawley (born in Cobourg, Ontario on 23 August 1887; died on Vancouver Island in 1975) was an editor and critic who played a significant…

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Plessy vs. Ferguson

Plessy vs. Ferguson is a legal decision made by the United States Supreme Court upholding the constitutionality of ‘separate but equal’ laws popular in the…

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The Dreyfus Affair (1894–1906)

The Dreyfus Affair was a French political controversy resulting from the unjust conviction and imprisonment of Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859–1935), a Jewish artillery officer, for…

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Al-Hakim, Tawfiq (1898–1987)

Tawfiq Al-Hakim (1898–1987) was an Egyptian playwright, short-story writer, and novelist generally credited with giving birth to the theater in Egypt. His fiction, in the…

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Maeterlinck, Maurice (1862–1949)

Maurice Maeterlinck was a Flemish francophone writer, who spent most of his life in France and whose prolific oeuvre entails poetry, plays, and essays. In…

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The Arts and Letters Club

The Arts and Letters Club is a Canadian private club for artists and their patrons. For more than a century, the Club has played an…

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Smart, Elizabeth (1913–1986)

Elizabeth Smart was a Canadian poet and novelist, best known for By Grand Central Station I Sat Down and Wept– a novella-length work of prose…

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Borges, Jorge Luis (1899–1986)

Jorge Luis Borges is among the writers who have brought international fame to Latin American Literature. A fabulist, poet, essayist and translator, Borges shaped modern…

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Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945)

Adolf Hitler was the dominant political figure in German Nazism. He became chairman of the Nazionalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei [the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or…

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Inclán, Pedro Martínez (1883–1957)

The urban development of modern Havana and the emergence of a planning discourse in Cuba owes much of its existence to the efforts of architect,…

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Figari, Pedro (1861–1938)

Together with his contemporary Joaquín Torres-García, Pedro Figari is one of the major names of 20th-century Uruguayan art. Unlike Torres-García and his Taller del Sur,…

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Sorel, Ruth Elly Abramovitsch (1907–1974)

Upon immigrating to Montreal in 1944, Ruth Abramovitsch (also known as Abramowitz) Sorel was one of the first dancers to regularly teach and perform modern…

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de Zayas, Marius (1880–1961)

Marius de Zayas was a Mexican caricaturist, writer, collector, dealer, and curator who formed part of the New York avant-garde, and did much to promote…