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Free Verse

Free verse is a technique of poetic composition that was employed and discussed by poets and critics during the modernist period. Exemplified by a disregard…

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Maghut, Muhammad (1934–2006)

Muhammad Maghut, a Syrian poet born in Salamiya, is widely credited with introducing free-verse into Arabic poetry. He published his first collection, Huzn fi daw’…

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Ross, W. W. E. (1894–1966)

William Wrightson Eustace Ross was a pioneering modernist poet in Canada in the early twentieth century. He experimented with free verse, Imagism, and Japanese poetic…

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al-Sayyāb, Badr Shākir (1926–1964)

Badr Shākir al-Sayyāb is the unrivalled champion of the Arab Free Verse movement. One of the most well-known poets of the twentieth century, he revolutionized…

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Jeffers, (John) Robinson (1887–1962)

Renowned as the ‘poet of Carmel-Sur’, Robinson Jeffers held a place of prominence in American literature from the mid-1920s through to the 1930s. He lived…

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Jensen, Johannes V. (1873–1950)

Winner of the 1944 Nobel Prize in literature, the novelist and poet Johannes V. Jensen was Denmark’s major 20th-century literary figure. Much celebrated for his…

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The Waste Land (1922)

The Waste Land is an influential and experimental 435-line poem written by Thomas Stearns Eliot and first published in 1922. Structurally, it is a pastiche…

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Shlonsky, Abraham (1900–1973)

Abraham Shlonsky can be regarded as the main architect of modern Hebrew poetry. He was born in 1900 to a socialist revolutionary mother and a…

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Abdel Sabour, Salah (1931–1981)

Salah Abdel Sabour (also Abd-al Sabur) is an Egyptian writer, poet, and playwright. He is considered a pioneer of modern Arabic poetry and a prominent…

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Laforgue, Jules (1860–1887)

Jules Laforgue is one of the French ‘poètes maudits’ of the late nineteenth century. Maintaining a certain distance from literary movements, he developed a unique…

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Charles Olson (1910–1970)

Actively writing in the 1950s and 1960s, poet and critic Charles Olson is a key figure of both the New American Poetry and the Black…

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Gwala, Mafika Pascal (1946–)

Born in the Verulam area of the then Natal province (now KwaZulu-Natal), the population of which was largely Indian and Zulu, Mafika Gwala’s response to…

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H.D. (Hilda Doolittle) (1886–1961)

Perhaps best known as one of the founding imagists, H.D. was also a novelist, essayist and actor active throughout the entire modernist period. From her…

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Mallarmé, Stéphane (Étienne) (1842–1898)

Along with Arthur Rimbaud and Paul Verlaine, Stéphane Mallarmé is a preeminent poet of the latter part of the nineteenth century, notably as the head…

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Futurism

Futurism emerged at the beginning of the twentieth century as a movement that explicitly conceptualized the process of literary and artistic experimentation as part of…

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Modernism in Australia and Oceania

(Previously published as 'The Experience of Aboriginality in the Creation of the Radically New' in Ross, S. (ed.) (2014) Modernist World, Abingdon: Routledge.)1

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Modernism in Latin America

In Latin American intellectual history, modernism is a term that can be usefully and accurately applied to at least two distinct intellectual movements: a clearly…

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Modernism in the Middle East and Arab World

Exploring modernity and its intellectual trends in the Middle East is a very fitting endeavour, as ‘Middle East’ itself is a ‘modern’ term which has…

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Cendrars, Blaise (1887–1961)

Blaise Cendrars was one of the leading experimental writers of the twentieth century. In addition to being a novelist and journalist, he was also a…

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Lowell, Amy (1874–1925)

Born in Brookline, Massachusetts, to a prominent Boston family, Amy Lowell was a poet, lecturer, editor, and critic who was particularly well known for her…

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New Verse

New Verse was a British literary magazine founded by Hugh Ross Williamson (1901–1978) and Geoffrey Grigson (1905–1985). Essentially Grigson’s hobbyhorse, this little magazine would become…

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The Introspectivists

The Introspectivists (Inzikhistn), the first group of modernist Yiddish poets in America, were part of the Jewish American Renaissance and flourished in the years following…

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Yousef, Saadi (1934–)

Saadi Yousef is an Iraqi poet, author, journalist, and political activist. He has published 45 volumes of poetry, nine books of prose, several essays and…

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Symbolism Overview

Symbolism is a late-nineteenth-century literary movement centred mostly around the work of poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine, Philippe Villiers de L’Isle-Adam,…

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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…