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Modernist Film Criticism

Criticism is one of the fundamental concepts in Modernism and is defined by “the intensification, almost exacerbation, of [a] self-critical tendency” that began with Kant,…

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Film Subject Overview

The Film Section includes entries on a variety of modernist genres, periods, movements, directors, films, and critical modes aligned with modernist aims and intellectual attitudes.…

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Montage

As an aesthetic principle, montage, defined as the assemblage of disparate elements into a composite whole often by way of juxtaposition, is most often associated…

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Surrealism Overview

Soupault’s publication of Manifeste du Surréalism in 1924. Rising in the wake of the First World War, Surrealism revolted against a world that had become…

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Pereira dos Santos, Nelson (1928--)

Nelson Pereira dos Santos (born in 1928 in São Paulo) is a Brazilian actor, screenwriter, film critic and theorist, producer, and director. He can be…

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Daney, Serge (1944–1992)

Serge Daney was regarded as one of the greatest film critics in French intellectual culture. For Jean-Luc Godard, his untimely demise signalled the end of…

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Kerr, Alfred (1867–1948)

Born Alfred Kempner, Alfred Kerr is remembered as one of Germany’s most important theatre and film critics and as a writer with literary ambitions who…

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Truffaut, François (1932–1984)

François Truffaut was a French film director, actor, and film critic, best known for being one of the founders of the French New Wave—a movement…

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Agee, James (1909–1955)

James Agee was an American film critic, journalist, and novelist, who, like his modernist contemporaries, pushed against the constraints of his genres. Born in Knoxville…

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Rocha, Glauber (1939–1981)

Glauber Rocha de Andrade (Vitória da Conquista, 1939–1981) was a Brazilian film critic, screenwriter, producer, and director. Arguably the most important director of the cinema…

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Delluc, Louis (1890–1924)

A prolific film reviewer and director of eight films in the early 1920s, Louis Delluc is renowned for being France’s first film critic—a justifiable status…

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Rohmer, Éric (1920–2010)

Éric Rohmer (born Jean-Marie-Maurice Schéer) was a French film director, screenwriter, and film critic, best known for his association with the French New Wave, and…

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Bazin, André (1918–1958)

André Bazin (born April 18, 1918, Angers, France–died November 11, 1958, Nogent-sur-Marne, France) was an influential French film critic who was active during the development…

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Jacobs, Lewis (1906–97)

Lewis Jacobs (1906–97) was an American film critic, historian, and filmmaker. Jacobs initially studied painting and design, and his first foray into cinema was through…

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Auteur Theory, The

The auteur theory is a way of critically analyzing a film or corpus of films through viewing its director as the film’s author and principal…

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French New Wave

The French New Wave is a term associated with a group of French filmmakers and the films they directed from the late 1950s until the…

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Anthology Film Archives

Anthology Film Archives (“Anthology” hereafter) is an experimental film institution that was founded in 1970 by experimental filmmakers Jonas Mekas, Jerome Hill, Peter Kubelka, Stan…

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Epstein, Jean (1897–1953)

Born in Warsaw in 1897 to a Jewish Franco-Polish family, Jean Epstein was an early queer filmmaker, poet, and theorist. Epstein is best remembered for…

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Iranian New Wave

The Iranian New Wave began when a group of young Iranian directors—following developments in the Iranian cultural arena with origins in the political and social…

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Klaxon (São Paulo, 1922–1923)

Klaxon (São Paulo, 1922–1923) was the first and most important of Brazil’s avant-garde artistic journals. It comprised a total of nine issues, published on a…

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Melodrama

With its origins in the novel and the theater, melodrama appeared in late 18th-century Europe and reached maturity at the turn of the 20th century.…

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Furukawa, Roppa (1903–1961)

Furukawa Roppa was a Japanese comedian, film actor, and essayist, who was known for his round face with Lloyd’s glasses. He was active before and…

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The Birth of a Nation

One of the most watched and debated American films in history, The Birth of a Nation is a 1915 silent film by D. W. Griffith…

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Osaki Midori [尾崎 翠] (1896–1971)

Osaki Midori was a writer of short stories, poetry, essays, dramatic works, and a novel. Characterized as a Modern Girl, she is often discussed alongside…

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Slapstick Comedy

The term “slapstick comedy” refers to film comedies in which the humor relies upon physical gags and stunts. The slapstick—a wooden paddle to which a…