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Overview

Photography

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Drama, Theater and Performance Subject Overview

This brief preamble will introduce the kinds of material the reader can expect to find in the entries treating drama, theater, and performance, and suggest…

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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…

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Grupo Santa Helena

The Santa Helena Group, made up mostly of wall painters, artisans, and amateur easel painters, had its origins in Brazil in the second half of…

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Malfatti, Anita (1889–1964)

Anita Malfatti began her artistic training with her mother Bety, an American amateur artist. In 1910 she went to Berlin to study with Fritz Bürger,…

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Dr. Atl (1875–1964)

Dr. Atl was a Mexican artist, author, political activist, and amateur vulcanologist. Born Gerardo Murillo in 1875 and raised in Guadalajara in the state of…

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Little Theater Movement

The Little Theater Movement comprised a web of amateur theater activities undertaken across much of the United States between 1912 and 1925. Little Theater opposed…

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Balla, Giacomo (1871–1958)

Giacomo Balla was an Italian painter and an important exponent of Futurism. He began his career as a self-taught artist; he inherited a passion for…

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Bacon, Francis (1909–1992)

British painter Francis Bacon was one of the most important figures of international post-war modernism. During the 1940s and 1950s, he developed a characteristic painting…

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Jones, David (1895–1974)

David Jones, the poet, painter and engraver, was born in Brockley, Kent, in 1895. He was the youngest son of James Jones, a printer’s overseer…

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Troy, Excavation of

The existence and geographical location of Troy, the legendary setting of the Trojan War described in Homer’s Iliad, received little attention until the nineteenth century.…

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Gabo, Naum (1890–1977)

Gabo was one of the first artists to create constructed sculptures, which he built up from flat (planar) elements in space. His initial works, developed…

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Tshelantende

Tshelantende was an artist, tailor, and hunter born before the turn of the twentieth century in Luluaburg, today’s Kananga, and lived until 1950s in Ibanshe…

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Jacobs, Lewis (1906–97)

Lewis Jacobs (1906–97) was an American film critic, historian, and filmmaker. Jacobs initially studied painting and design, and his first foray into cinema was through…

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Burrowes, Leslie (1908–1985)

Dancer, choreographer, and teacher Leslie Burrowes was the first British recipient of the full certification of Mary Wigman’s Dresden School, which licenced her to teach…

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Foxtrot

The foxtrot emerged circa 1914, most likely within African American practices, as a variation on the older duple meter one step popular with dancers since…

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McLaren, Norman (1914–87)

Born in Scotland, Norman McLaren was a filmmaker and one of the most inventive creators of animation films. His career is closely connected to the…

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Wright, Basil (1907–1987)

Basil Wright was a prominent figure in the British documentary film movement. He attended the first screening of John Grierson’s Drifters (1929), which amplified his…

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Huston, John (1906–1987)

John Huston was an American actor, director, and screenwriter, who became one of the world’s most influential filmmakers. Born in Missouri to Rhea Huston, a…

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Ausdruckstanz (1910–1950)

The term Ausdruckstanz became common usage after World War II to designate a widespread dance practice in the early and middle decades of the 20th…

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World Film News

World Film News was a publication that advanced the visibility of the documentary film movement and hosted wide-ranging debates over film, politics, and aesthetics. The…

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Kawakami, Otojirō (1864–1911)

Kawakami Otojirō was an actor, comedian, and impresario during Japan’s early modern period and was the first to take Japanese performances on tour, albeit in…

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Lovecraft, H. P. (1890–1937)

H. P. Lovecraft was an American pulp author in the 1920s and 1930s. His work, primarily published in the magazine Weird Tales, helped create the…

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Hijikata, Yoshi (1898–1959)

A shingeki director and one of the most important early leaders of the modernist movement in Japanese theater, Hijikata Yoshi was the cofounder of the…

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Chan, Luis (1905–1995)

Luis Chan was a doyen of the Hong Kong art world whose artistic career not only witnessed but also paved the way for the development…