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Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)

Kandinsky’s commitment to abstraction in painting and theory has attracted the attention of artists and critics throughout the twentieth century. His major manifesto Über des…

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Der Blaue Reiter [The Blue Rider]

Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was an affiliated circle of artists of varying disciplines loosely organized by the visual artists Wassily Kandinsky and Franz…

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Bauhaus

In 1919 a young architect named Walter Gropius initiated one of the most modern art schools of the twentieth century in the city of Weimar…

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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…

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Modernism in South Asia

In South Asia, a certain haziness regarding modernism and modernity derives not only from the manner in which they can be elided with each other,…

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Dadaism

Dada began in Zurich, Switzerland, in the midst of World War I. Several expatriate artists converged in the city to escape the brutal and seemingly…

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Constructivism

Prior to World War II, Constructivism attracted little interest from British artists apart from the few involved with Circle in 1937. Circle consisted of a…

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Modernism in Europe

We are living in a very singular moment of history. It is a moment of crisis, in the literal sense of that word. In every…

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Erster Deutscher Herbstsalon

The Erster Deutscher Herbstsalon [First German Autumn Salon] was one of the most important large-scale international exhibitions of Modern art to be shown in Germany…

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Delaunay, Robert (1885–1941)

Robert-Victor-Félix Delaunay was one of the precursors of abstract painting in Europe. He played a critical role in establishing abstract painting before World War I…

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Palucca, Gret (1902–1993)

Gret Palucca took a distinctive improvisational and pedagogical approach to German modern dance in a career spanning four different political systems in Germany. After studying…

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Die Blaue Vier [The Blue Four] (1924–1945)

Die Blaue Vier [The Blue Four] was founded in Weimar in March 1924 at the initiative of Galka E. Scheyer, who became the American representative…

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Scheyer, Galka E. (1889–1945)

Galka E. Scheyer was a German-American painter, art dealer, art collector, and art teacher. Born into a middle-class Jewish family in Braunschweig, Germany, Scheyer studied…

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Syed, Ahmad Jamal (1929–2011)

Syed Ahmad Jamal was a painter who promoted Abstract Expressionism as an artistic approach in Malaysia. As an art student, he was already drawn to…

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Orientalism

Orientalism is the sociological, historical, cultural, and anthropological study of the Orient, with “the Orient” constituting countries East of “the Occident” (Western Europe), and including…

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Münter, Gabriele (1877–1962)

Gabriele Münter was a key figure in German Expressionism. Born in Berlin, she moved to Munich in 1901 where she became an active participant in…

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Walden, Herwarth (1878–1941)

Herwarth Walden was the force behind Der Sturm, an avant-garde journal, gallery, performance venue, bookstore and theater school in Berlin (1910–1932). Walden’s first wife, the…

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Theosophy

The term ‘theosophy’, derived from the Greek theo (‘divine’) and sophia (‘wisdom’), refers generally to divine wisdom and its mystical interpretation. Arising in the third…

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Marc, Franz (1880–1916)

Franz Marc was born in Munich, Germany in 1880 and died in the battle of Verdun in 1916, one of many of the Great War’s…

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Cabaret Voltaire

The Cabaret Voltaire, housed within the Holländische Meierei bar at Spiegelgasse 1, in Zürich’s Niederdorf district, was the original breeding ground for the Zürich Dada…

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Werefkin, Marianne (1960–1937)

Werefkin was born into an aristocratic family and herself a baroness. Her mother, Elizabeth Daragan, was an artist; her father, an army general decorated by…

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Brooker, Bertram (1888–1955)

Novelist, painter, and public intellectual, Bertram Brooker (1888–1955) was a leading force in the modernizing of Canadian culture in the early twentieth century. Brooker believed…

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Biomorphism

Biomorphism is a 20th-century style of painting, sculpture, photography and design with roots in the late 19th century. It is characterized by what are often…

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Yoga

The term ‘yoga’ refers to a heterogeneous matrix of philosophies and practices that originated in India and developed into a school of thought sometime between…

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Der Sturm

Der Sturm (Storm) was the fulcrum of the international avant-garde in Berlin from 1910 to 1932. Herwarth Walden (born Georg Levin, 1878–1941) founded the journal…