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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…

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Hartley, Marsden (1877–1943)

Marsden Hartley was a modernist painter and writer who worked in a variety of styles, from abstract to still life. After leaving school at fifteen…

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Scheler, Max (1874–1928)

Scheler was a philosopher in the phenomenological school. His mother was Jewish; his father was Protestant. In high school he became a Catholic but abandoned…

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Marburg School

The Marburg School is a term used to describe a group of Neo-Kantian philosophers at the University of Marburg in the second half of the…

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Perle, George (1915–2009)

George Perle (1915–2009) was an American composer and scholar, awarded a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship, a Pulitzer Prize (1986) for his Wind Quintet no. 4, and…

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Cummings, E. E. (1894–1962)

Edward Estlin Cummings was a prolific and iconoclastic figure in American poetry of the mid-twentieth century. He experimented with unconventional verse forms, often playfully disrupting…

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Bresson, Robert (1901–99)

Robert Bresson was a film director and one of the most important representatives of French cinema. His work with its stark, austere style and focus…

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Epstein, Jean (1897–1953)

Born in Warsaw in 1897 to a Jewish Franco-Polish family, Jean Epstein was an early queer filmmaker, poet, and theorist. Epstein is best remembered for…

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Marker, Chris (1921–2012)

Chris Marker was a French filmmaker, photographer, writer, and multi-media artist who is widely considered to be the foremost pioneer of the essay film. More…

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Domingo Santa Cruz, Wilson (1899–1987)

Wilson Domingo Santa Cruz was a lawyer, composer, and academic. His career was built upon several achievements in formative, artistic, and administrative fields, making him…

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Gould, Glenn (1932–1982)

Glenn Gould was a twentieth-century pianist born in Toronto in 1932. Among his major influences were the recordings of Artur Schnabel (1882–1951), who specialized in…

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Minimalism

Minimalism is an artistic style understood as a transition between high modernist abstraction and the turn into what would become known as postmodernism in art.…

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Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt (1868-1963)

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was the most significant critical writer on race and culture in the twentieth century. Du Bois characterized the issue of…

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Margolin, Anna (1887–1952)

Anna Margolin is a Yiddish poet of the first half of the twentieth century, and though she produced only a single volume of poetry, Margolin…

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Rendón, Manuel (1894–1980)

The French-born Ecuadorian painter Manuel Rendón Seminario (also known as Manuel Rendón) is credited for introducing Geometric Abstraction to Ecuador together with compatriot Areceli Gilbert…

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Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)

Kandinsky’s commitment to abstraction in painting and theory has attracted the attention of artists and critics throughout the twentieth century. His major manifesto Über des…

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Verfremdungseffekt

Verfremdungseffekt (V-effekt), usually translated as alienation effect (a-effect), is a concept developed by the German poet, playwright, and dramaturg Bertolt Brecht (1898–1956). His V-effekt is…

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De Casseres, Benjamin (1873–1945)

Benjamin De Casseres was an American poet, literary and cultural critic, and satirist whose career spanned four decades and two countries. Born in Philadelphia on…

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Synaesthesia

Synaesthesia is the confusion or conflation of sensory modalities, where one sense is experienced or described in terms of another as in Charles Baudelaire’s simile…

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MacDiarmid, Hugh (1892–1978)

Hugh MacDiarmid was the pseudonym of Christopher Murray Grieve, the pre-eminent Scottish modernist poet, and leading proponent of the interwar “Scottish Literary Renaissance.” His best-known…

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Miller, Henry (1891–1980)

An iconoclastic writer of autobiographical fiction, travel narratives, and personal essays, Henry Miller drew on several strands of European Modernism, including Surrealism, Dada, and Expressionism.…

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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…