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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…

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Ruttmann, Walter (1889–1941)

Born in Frankfurt, Ruttmann studied architecture and design, and started his career as a painter and lithographer before turning to film. His earliest films, Lichtspiel:…

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Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1928–2007)

For much of the 1950s and 1960s, the German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen was an absolutely seminal figure within the European avant-garde. By the mid-1950s, every…

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Regen (Rain) (1929)

Regen (Rain) is a black-and-white short film by Joris Ivens and Mannus Franken about a rain shower in Amsterdam. As a masterpiece of Dutch avant-garde…

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Diagonalsymphonien [Diagonal Symphony] (1924)

Diagonalsymphonien [Diagonal Symphony], a black-and-white, abstract, animated short film made in Germany by Swedish painter Viking Eggeling, assisted by Bauhaus student Erna Niemeyer, is a…

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Film und Fotografie

FiFo, or Film und Fotografie, is shorthand for the Internationale Ausstellung des deutschen Werkbundes [International Exhibition of the German Werkbund], which opened in Stuttgart in…

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Vivier, Claude (1948–1983)

Claude Vivier is perhaps the best known of all Quebec composers, both in Canada and abroad. In 1967, after being removed from the religious establishment…

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Segal, Arthur (1875–1944)

Arthur Segal was a Romanian artist born as Aron Sigalu to Jewish parents. He shifted his attention away from post-impressionist modernism around 1900 to focus…

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Celan, Paul (1920–1970)

Paul Celan (a pseudonym of Paul Antschel) is one the most distinctive German-language poets of the second half of the twentieth century. Born in 1920…

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Saariaho, Kaija (1952–)

Finnish composer Kaija Saariaho initially studied in Helsinki before moving on to Freiberg where she studied with Brian Ferneyhough and Klaus Huber among others. In…

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Di Yunge

Di yunge is a group of American Symbolist Yiddish writers and critics that achieved prominence during the first two decades of the twentieth century and…

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Mass Dance

The early years of the twentieth century saw a proliferation of mass spectacles and events on a grand scale with thousands of participants, which frequently…

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Henrik Johan Ibsen (1828–1906)

Henrik Ibsen is Norway’s most important writer and one of the most influential dramatists of the second half of the nineteenth century. His dramatic production…

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The Great War (1914–1918)

The Great War was fought from 1914 to 1918, and was officially ended in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles. Its primary locus was the…

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Laban, Rudolf (1879–1958)

Rudolf Laban was one of the leaders of Ausdruckstanz (“expressionist dance”) in Germany. He worked as a dancer, choreographer, writer, educator, movement analyst, ballet master,…

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Expressionism

Expressionism was one of the foremost modernist movements to emerge in Europe in the early years of the twentieth-century. It had a profound effect on…