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Cubism

Cubism is an influential modernist art movement that emerged in Paris during the first decade of the twentieth century. The term was established by Parisian…

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Gris, Juan (1887–1927)

The Spanish artist Juan Gris (born José Victoriano Carmelo Carlos González Pérez) is widely recognized, alongside Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, as one of the…

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Assemblage

Assemblage is an artistic form that involves the transformation of non-art objects into two-dimensional or three-dimensional artistic compositions. Together with abstraction, it has been considered…

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Phillips, Duncan (1886–1966)

Art collector Duncan Phillips founded one of the first museums in the United States devoted to modern European and American art. Incorporated in 1918 and…

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Boghossian, Alexander (Skunder) (1937–2003)

Alexander Boghossian, better known as Skunder, was one of the most prominent figures of African modernism. Born in Addis Ababa in Ethiopia in 1937 to…

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Collage

Collage is an artistic technique first used in the 20th century in which paper, photographs, fabric, and other items are glued onto paper or canvas.…

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Char, René (1907–1988)

The French poet René Char exemplified key aspects of modernism. Initially associated with Surrealism, he collaborated with poets such as André Breton and Paul Eluard,…

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Filla, Emil (1882–1953)

Emil Filla (b. 4 April 1882 in Chropyně in Moravia; d. 6 October 1953 in Prague) is regarded as one of the main leaders of Czech Cubism…

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Fauvism

French Fauvism (c. 1904–1907) comprised a loosely formed group of painters whose mentor, Henri Matisse (1869–1954), argued for a new approach to painting, integrating the…

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Cézanne, Paul (1839–1906)

Paul Cézanne was a French painter, whose innovative techniques and original interpretations of traditional genres made him perhaps the most influential artist in the early…

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Valenzuela, Rosa Mena (1913–2004)

As a pioneer of Expressionism in El Salvador, Rosa Mena Valenzuela was responsible for some of the most radical transformations in Salvadoran art in the…

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Laurencin, Marie (1883–1956)

Marie Laurencin was a painter, etcher, lithographer, illustrator, and decorative artist of the Parisian avant-garde in the early twentieth century. She is most widely known…

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Federal Art Project

The Federal Art Project (FAP) was a branch of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), a work relief agency established in 1935 by President Franklin Delano…

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Hepworth, Dame (Jocelyn) Barbara (1903–1975)

Barbara Hepworth was a sculptor, draughtsperson, painter and printmaker, born in Yorkshire but based in London and St Ives in Cornwall, with a career spanning…

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Tamayo, Rufino (1899–1991)

A Mexican painter and muralist of indigenous heritage, Rufino Tamayo was one of the most important representatives of figurative abstraction and poetic realism in 20th-century…

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Eight, The

Known in Czech as Osma and in German as Die Acht, the Eight was an artistic association at the forefront of the modern movement in…

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Rite of Spring, The (Le Sacre du Printemps)

The premiere of The Rite of Spring at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées in Paris on 29 May 1913 provoked greater storms of controversy than any…

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Satie, Erik Alfred Leslie (1866–1925)

Erik Satie’s compositions, writings, and humor played an important role in many modernist movements of the twentieth century. Experimenting with simple forms, neoclassicism, mysticism, satire,…

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Apollinaire, Guillaume (1880–1918)

Guillaume Apollinaire (1880–1918) was a poet, literary and art critic, playwright, novelist, editor, and journalist. Born in Rome to a Polish-Russian mother and an unknown…

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De Maré, Rolf (1888–1964)

Rolf de Maré was a Swedish-born impresario, art collector, and philanthropist. Born into one of Sweden’s wealthiest families, he began collecting modern art at an…

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Ballets Suédois (1920–25)

Rolf de Maré’s Ballets Suédois was active from 1920 to 1925. It was the chief artistic rival to Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, and de Maré was…

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Nijinska, Bronislava (1891–1972)

The premiere female ballet choreographer of the first half of the twentieth century, Bronislava Nijinska experienced the transformative power of the Russian Revolution and discovered…

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Picasso, Pablo (1881-1973)

Born in Malaga, it was in Barcelona that Picasso first identified himself as a subversive Modernist with a critical, contestatory and transgressive praxis exposing the…

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Primitivism

Primitivism in modern art designates a range of practices and accompanying modes of thought that span the period from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century…