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Architecture Subject Overview

Modernist architecture and design represented a utopian vision of how the built environment could be adapted to the needs to modern industrial society. Industrialization had…

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Bauhaus

In 1919 a young architect named Walter Gropius initiated one of the most modern art schools of the twentieth century in the city of Weimar…

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Cubism

Cubism is an influential modernist art movement that emerged in Paris during the first decade of the twentieth century. The term was established by Parisian…

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Ivens, Joris (1898–1989)

Joris Ivens (Georg Henri Anton Ivens), nicknamed “The Flying Dutchman” for his globe-trotting career, was a Dutch documentary maker. His political commitment and deft use…

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Mondrian, Piet (1872–1944)

The Dutch artist Piet Mondrian was one of the pioneers of abstract art, producing some of the most radical painting of the 20th century. The…

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Koolhaas, Rem (1944--)

The Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas (born in Rotterdam) has always had a keen eye for the still vibrant legacy of Modernism, calling attention to the…

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Stam, Mart (1899–1986)

Mart (Martinus Adrianus) Stam (b. in 1899 in Purmerend, Netherlands—d. in 1986 in Goldach, Switzerland) was a Dutch architect, designer, and architectural theorist, and was…

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Rietveld, Gerrit Thomas (1888-1964)

Gerrit Rietveld was a Dutch furniture designer and architect associated with the avant-garde movement known as De Stijl (The Style). Influenced by the abstract paintings…

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van Doesburg, Theo (1883–1931)

Theo van Doesburg was a Dutch painter, designer, and art theorist. As the founder and major polemicist of the avant-garde movement known as De Stijl…

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Kartodikromo, Mas Marco (1890–1932)

Mas Marco Kartodikromo (Cepu, Java, 1890 – Boven Digul, Indonesia, 1932) was a prominent writer and activist in the early days of the nationalist movement…

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Musical Modernism in Bali and Java

Musical modernism was not domesticated within Balinese or Javanese culture to the extent that it was in other parts of Asia. Although a handful of…

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Tati, Jacques (1907–1982)

Jacques Tati (born Jacques Tatischeff) was a French director and actor. Despite a very small output—only six feature films and three shorts—he is considered one…

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Leffler (Edgren), Anne Charlotte (1849–1892)

Anne Charlotte Leffler was one of the most acclaimed Swedish women writers of the modern breakthrough in late 19th-century Scandinavia. Joining the circle known as…

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CoBrA (1948–1951)

CoBrA was a European avant-garde movement active from 1948 to 1951, primarily known for a painterly style of coloristic disfiguration. The name is an acronym…

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Fitzgerald, Desmond (1911–1987)

Desmond Fitzgerald was an architect descended from a well-known Irish political family. He worked for Patrick Abercrombie on Mendesohn and Chermayeff’s 1936 De La Warr…

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Scott, Michael (1905–1989)

Michael Scott was the foremost proponent of modern architecture in Ireland during the mid-20th century. He specialized in public commissions, particularly hospitals and transport hubs,…

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Laubser, Maggie (1886–1972)

The painter Maggie Laubser occupies an important space in South African art history. Her evolution as an artist was greatly influenced by her initial European-style…

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Van der Post, Laurens (1906-1996)

Laurens van der Post was born on December 13, 1906 in the village of Phillipolis, in what was then the Orange River Colony. He was…

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Sadali, Ahmad (1924–1987)

Ahmad Sadali was an iconic figure of the Bandung School and remains a key influence as a pioneer in modern abstract painting in Indonesia. Sadali,…

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Cephas, Kassian (1845–1912)

Cephas was the first indigenous Indonesian photographer who, after training with a European mentor around 1870, was appointed as official photographer to the royal house…

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Djaya, Agus (1913–1994)

Agus Djaya was an Indonesian artist who rejected academic formalism in favor of a more expressive mode of painting, achieved by the flattening of space…

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PERSAGI (Persatuan Ahli-Ahli Gambar Indonesia)

PERSAGI is the acronym for Persatuan Ahli-Ahli Gambar Indonesia (Union of Indonesian Painters, or to be more precise, Union of Indonesian Drawers). Founded by S.…

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The Boer War (1899–1902)

The British Empire waged two wars in southern Africa at the close of the nineteenth century. In the First Boer War (or Transvaal War) of…

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Eybers, Elisabeth (1915–2007)

Elisabeth Eybers is regarded as the first of the great Afrikaans female poets. She was born in the Western Transvaal and lived in Johannesburg both…

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Bandung School

The Bandung School refers to one of the streams of modern art in post-revolutionary Indonesia. It is associated primarily with the art school in what…