Search Results 1 - 25 of 53


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Aragon, Louis (1897–1982)

French author Louis Aragon was a member of the surrealist movement until he split with André Breton and began to devote more of his energy…

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Char, René (1907–1988)

The French poet René Char exemplified key aspects of modernism. Initially associated with Surrealism, he collaborated with poets such as André Breton and Paul Eluard,…

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Breton, André (1896–1966)

André Breton was a French poet, writer, editor and critic. He is best known as one of the key founders of Surrealism. Breton published the…

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Takiguchi, Shūzō (1903–1979)

Shūzō Takiguchi was the most prominent figure in Japanese Surrealism. He penned ‘On the Poetics of Surrealism’ as early as 1928, and translated André Breton’s…

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Overview

Dadaism

Dada began in Zurich, Switzerland, in the midst of World War I. Several expatriate artists converged in the city to escape the brutal and seemingly…

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Overview

Modernism in Europe

We are living in a very singular moment of history. It is a moment of crisis, in the literal sense of that word. In every…

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Automatism [REVISED AND EXPANDED]

There were different directions and forms connnected to Dada but an important element within it was a position of critique of established art and society.…

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Henein, Georges (1914–1973)

The son of an Egyptian diplomat and Italian-Egyptian mother, surrealist writer Georges Henein spent his childhood between Cairo, Madrid, Rome, and Paris. It was in…

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Hare, David (1917–1992)

David Hare was an American sculptor and critic whose work was inspired by the imagination and the subconscious. During the early 1940s, when he began…

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Okamoto, Tarō (1911–1996)

Tarō Okamoto [岡本太郎] (1911–1996) was one of Japan’s most visible artists during the post-World War II period. Born in Kawasaki, Kanagawa, his father was a…

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Nouveau Roman

The ‘Nouveau Roman’ or ‘New Novel’ is used to refer to a literary and critical movement in France during the 1950s and early 1960s. Later,…

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Reverdy, Pierre (1889–1960)

Pierre Reverdy was born in Narbonne, France, on 13 September 1889, and died in Solesmes, home of the St Peter’s Abbey, on 17 June 1960.…

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Ross, W. W. E. (1894–1966)

William Wrightson Eustace Ross was a pioneering modernist poet in Canada in the early twentieth century. He experimented with free verse, Imagism, and Japanese poetic…

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Tanguy, Yves (1900–1955)

Yves Tanguy was a French painter and one of the principal members of the Surrealist group. His main artistic output consisted of oil paintings, which…

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Maria Martins (1894–1973)

Maria Martins was a Brazilian sculptor and writer, a founding member of the Fundação do Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro, and a…

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Boghossian, Alexander (Skunder) (1937–2003)

Alexander Boghossian, better known as Skunder, was one of the most prominent figures of African modernism. Born in Addis Ababa in Ethiopia in 1937 to…

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Mass Observation

Mass Observation was founded in 1937 by filmmaker Humphrey Jennings, poet Charles Madge, and ethnologist and explorer Tom Harrisson. It was originally conceived as a…

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Oppenheim, Meret Elisabeth (1913–1985)

Meret Oppenheim was a Swiss artist primarily known as a maker of Surrealist objects. Born in Berlin-Charlottenburg to a German father and Swiss mother, Oppenheim…

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Man Ray (1890-1976)

Born Emmanuel Radnitzky, Man Ray was one of the key innovators in modernist photography, film, and object making. He began his artistic career as a…

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Hyppolite, Hector (c. 1894–1948)

Haitian painter Hector Hyppolite (born: c.1894 (uncertain) in Saint Marc, Haiti; died: 1948 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti) is best known for his inventive depictions of Haitian…

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Matta, Roberto (1911–2002)

Chilean architect and artist Robert Matta Echaurren (b. 1911, Santiago, Chile; d. Civitavecchia, Italy 2002) is considered one of the most important figures of the…

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Michaux, Henri (1899–1984)

Henri Michaux was a Belgian artist and writer who can be situated—however roughly—at the borders of Surrealism and Art Informel. At the age of twenty…

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Ernst, Max (1891–1976)

Max Ernst was a painter, sculptor and printmaker. He was born in Germany, but he lived in Paris and then New York; he returned to…

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Automatism

Both Dada and Surrealist writers and artists experimented with “automatic” creative production. Dadaists including Francis Picabia, Tristan Tzara, Hans Arp, and Kurt Schwitters wrote “automatic”…