The 1914 Generation Artists By Shaw, Wendy
The artists historiographically grouped as the 1914 Generation transformed the Westernizing artistic impulse of the late Ottoman era into the modernizing impulse of the Republic of Turkey, founded in 1923. Stylistically, the 1914 Generation distinguishes itself from earlier generations through its interest in naturalism, and from later generations through its disinterest in aesthetic modernism. More than functioning as a cohesive movement, the 1914 Generation came to prominence as a result of the onset of World War I. The artists most often included within this categorization include: Nazmi Ziya Güran (1881–1937), Mehmet Ruhi Arel (1880–1931), İbrahim Çallı (1882–1960), Hikmet Onat (1882–1977), Feyhaman Duran (1886–1970), Hüseyin Avni Lifij (1886–1927), and Namık İsmail (1890–1935). Although often excluded because of their lack of affiliation with the Istanbul Academy of Fine Arts, artists who may be considered in conjunction with this category by virtue of their participation in the pivotal transition from Ottoman to Turkish national identity also include Şevket (Dağ; 1876–1948), a teacher at the French-language Galatasaray Lycée, the military-trained artists Mehmet Sami Yetik (1878–1935), Mehmet Ali Laga (1878–1947) and Ali Sami Boyar (1880–1967), as well as the female artist Mihri Rasim/Müşfik (1886–1954).