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Group of Composers of Bahia (GCB) By Lima, Paulo Costa

DOI: 10.4324/9781135000356-REM566-1
Published: 09/05/2016
Retrieved: 18 March 2018, from


The Group of Composers of Bahia is a movement of musical creation initiated within the context of the Music Seminars of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil in 1966, around one of the most succinct and paradoxical of all manifestos: ‘We are mainly against all and every asserted principle’. This creative rebellion reverberates from the cultural context of Bahia with its traditions and vanguards, the political conjuncture, an answer to previous manifestos in Brazil – especially the Música Viva (1946), the Open Letter to Musicians and Critics (1946) and the Música Nova (1963) – and certainly Ernst Widmer’s heterodox teaching, initiated in 1963 and always concerned with the manifestation of singularity. Founding members were: Lindembergue Cardoso, Fernando Cerqueira, Milton Gomes, Nikolau Kokron, Antonio José Martins or Tomzé, Carmen Mettig, Rinaldo Rossi, Carlos Rodrigues, and Ernst Widmer himself. Walter Smetak was an honorary member, the only one who was not Widmer’s student. The movement gained national acknowledgement in the Guanabara Festivals, 1969–70, with awards given to several pieces, and in the following decades it became established in the university institution itself, a significant cultural resistance process involving hundreds of premieres, events, and publications and which has been kept active up to now, through the work of Agnaldo Ribeiro, Ilza Nogueira, Paulo Costa Lima, Wellington Gomes, Ângelo Castro, Fred Dantas, Tuzé de Abreu, Pedro Augusto Dias, Ricardo Bordini, and Pedro Kröger, among others.

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Citing this article:

Costa Lima, Paulo. "Group of Composers of Bahia (GCB)." The Routledge Encyclopedia of Modernism. : Taylor and Francis, 2016. Date Accessed 18 Mar. 2018 doi:10.4324/9781135000356-REM566-1

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