Access to the full text of the entire article is only available to members of institutions that have purchased access. If you belong to such an institution, please log in or find out more about how to order.


Frankfurt School By Pecora, Vincent P.

DOI: 10.4324/9781135000356-REM1200-1
Published: 01/10/2016
Retrieved: 17 March 2018, from


The Frankfurt School (Institute für Sozialforschung) was founded in 1923 by Felix Weil and fellow students Max Horkheimer and Friedrich Pollack, and was originally endowed by Weil’s father. Its early members included Leo Lowenthal, Henryk Grossman, Julian Gumperz, Franz Borkenau, Karl August Wittfogel, and Carl Grünberg, its first director. These were the sons of a largely assimilated Jewish bourgeoisie in Frankfurt who, following the example of the highly energized and diverse student movements after Germany’s loss in World War I and the subsequent failure of socialist revolution there, desired avenues for transformative research and discussion outside the boundaries of traditional universities.

content locked



Article DOI



Citing this article:

Pecora, Vincent P. "Frankfurt School." The Routledge Encyclopedia of Modernism. : Taylor and Francis, 2016. Date Accessed 17 Mar. 2018 doi:10.4324/9781135000356-REM1200-1

Copyright © 2016-2018 Routledge.